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2nd Ser. BOTANY.J 

[VOL. II. PART 13. 






By E. R 1M THURN. 

(Communicated by Sir J. D. Hookek, K.C.S.I.) 





Jtily 1887. 


[ 249 ] 

XV. The Botany of the Roraima Expedition of 1884 : being Notes on the Plants 
observed, by Everard E. im Thtjrn ; with a list of the Species collected, and 
Determinations of those that are new, by Prof. Oliver, F.R.S., F.L.S., and 
others. (Communicated by Six- J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c.) 

(Plates XXXVII.-LVI.) 

[Eead 15th April, 1886.] 

I. Notes on the Plants observed during the Roraima Expedition of 1884. 

By Everard E. im Thurn. 

AS was expected, the plants collected on the way to Roraima, and especially about that 
mountain itself, during the recent expedition and first ascent to its summit, have proved 
of great interest, now that they have been examined and catalogued at Kew. Several 
specialists have most kindly lent their aid in examining and determining these plants. 
While Professor Oliver undertook the bulk of the collection, Mr. J. G. Baker, besides 
determining a few of the Petaloid Monocotyledons, has, with Mr. G. S. Jenman of 
British Guiana, worked out the Eerns, Mr. H. N. Pidley, of the British Museum, the 
Orchids and Cyperacea?, and Mons. E. Marchal the Araliacea3, Dr. Engler has described 
a new Moronobea, Mr. E. Brown a new Aroid, and Mr. Mitten has named the Muscales ; 
lastly, Dr. Maxwell Masters has supplied a note on two Passiflorse, perhaps new, but 
imperfectly represented. In all, fifty-three new species and three new genera have been 
described by these various workers. 

The number of species collected would probably have been greater but for the extreme 
difficulty of drying plants in so excessively damp a climate as that of Roraima, and also 
for the fact that the other very serious labours inseparable from tbe direction of such an 
expedition greatly curtailed the time I was able to devote to the preparation of botanical 
specimens. As regards the number of new generic and specific forms collected, great 
as it is, it woidd undoubtedly have been much greater but for the fact (unfortunate 
in this respect) that my collection was made at exactly the same period of the year 
[November and December] at which such collecting as had been done before about 
Roraima had been accomplished by Sir Robert and Dr. Schomburgk and by Karl 

* The list of visitors to Eoraima, other than natives, is as follows :— Sir Robert Schomuurgk, then at the head of 
a boundary commission, was there in 1838, and again, with his brother, Dr. Richard Schomburgk, the present 
director of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens, in 184ii. Both made considerable botanical collections, which were distri- 
buted, I believe, mainly between the Herbaria at Kew, the British Museum, and at Berlin. Karl Arrr/N was at 
Roraima in 1864 ; his collections are chiefly at Kew. C. B. Brown, then the geological surveyor of British Guiana, 
■was there in 1869 ; two Englishmen, Flint and Eddington, were there in 1877 : and two others, M'Turk and 



Probably no district of equally small size, after sucb brief and cursory exploration, bas 
yielded greater, or as great, botanical results as bas Rorairna ; still more probable is it 
tbat few small districts are so distinctly marked off from tbe country immediately sur- 
rounding tbem by sucb great and remarkable peculiarities in tbeir vegetation. In brief, 
tbe district of Boraima is, from a botanical point of view, chiefly interesting as an oasis 
clotbed witb a vegetation distinct from tbat of tbe country which immediately surrounds 
it, and at the same time, also in a very marked degree, peculiar either to this special 
district or to this in common with a few other almost equally isolated, but widely sepa- 
rated districts. 

I cannot devote these prefatory remarks (in which I have the privilege of introducing 
the list and description of my collection, so kindly prepared by the authorities above 
mentioned) to a better purpose than to make as emphatic a statement as I can of the 
isolated character, botanically , of the Soraima district, of the probable botanical relation 
to certain other possibly similar districts, and of the general appearance of the very 
peculiar and distinct vegetation of these districts*. 

The whole area known under the name of Guiana may be likened to a wedge driven 
into the north-eastern shoulder of South America. Geographically, it is thus placed 
between Brazil on the south and Venezuela on the north ; for our present purpose it 
will, however, be better to describe its position somewhat differently. The artificially 
formed political divisions of the continent for obvious reasons correspond very closely 
with the tracts naturally differentiated each by its own river-system. As it is along 
the river-systems that the migration of animals and plants chiefly occur, the customary 
and convenient names of these divisions therefore really correspond somewhat closely 
with the natural and important differences in flora and in fauna, which distinguish the 
narrow river-basins. Thus, as Venezuela is essentially the tract drained by the great 
river Orinoco, and as the northern part of Brazil is essentially the tract drained by the 
great river Amazon, and as Guiana, intermediate between these two, consists essentially 
of the parallel tracts drained by comparatively smaller rivers (of which the Essequibo, 
the Demerara, the Berbice, the Corentyn, the Saramacca, and the Maroni may be 

Boddam Weiham, in 1878. None of these made botanical collections. David Bukke, an English orchid-collector, 
was there in 1881, and brought home interesting living plants, among others, the South-American pitcher-plant 
(Eelianvpliora nutans), which has, I believe, since been distributed by Messrs. Veitch & Sons. Hestry Whitelt, an 
English collector of bird-skins, was there on several occasions between 1879 and 1884, and is, I believe, again there 
ta the present moment, but he has collected no plants. Siedel, a German orchid-collector, was there in April 1884, 
and again, with us, in December of the same year. He brought back only living plants, especially the magnificent 
Catileya Lawrenceana, which have since been distributed by Mr. H. Sander. Of these Siedel, the only traveller with 
an eye for plants who has been at Boraima except in the last months of the year, assures me that the abundance of 
flower was much greater there iu April than in December. But in the latter month the natives' Cassava-fields are 
in full bearing, and provision is therefore much more easily attainable. 

* I use the phrase " Boraima district " as including not only the mountain of that name, but the whole of the 
small group of similar sandstone mountains of which Boraima is the best known, and at present the only explored 


mentioned), so Venezuela, Guiana, and North Brazil therefore represent tracts which are 
really more or less differentiated from one another in their lima and fauna. 

Now, as the whole of the tract under consideration (that drained by the Orinoco, the 
Amazon, and the intermediate rivers) rises gradually, or, more generally, hy step-like 
ascents, from the sea-level on its east toward the tableland on its west (i. e. the centre 
of the continent), it is, of course, on this tableland that the rivers take their origin. And 
as, owing to the irregularity of the surface of this tableland, and still more that of its 
slope toward the eastern sea, it follows that each of these rivers collects its head-waters 
from unusually widely separated localities, so it often happens that two or more of 
these rivers draw some portion of their head-waters from unusually contiguous localities. 
Thus it is conceivable, and even probable, that any peculiar animal or vegetable forms, 
which may originate at one of these localities which supplies water to very divergent 
river-systems may distribute themselves over very wide ai'eas by passing along the 
courses of the various rivers thence arising. 

It happens that the rock-pillars of the lloraima group, rising some 5000 feet over the 
general level of the tableland, itself at that part some 3000 feet above the level of the 
sea, pour clown from their summits streams which go to swell the Orinoco, the Esse- 
quibo, and the Amazon — in other words, the three rivers respectively of Venezuela, 
Guiana, and Brazil. Now, as has been already mentioned, the flora of Boraima is of a 
very remarkably peculiar character. A most interesting question still awaits solution, 
namely, the relation of the flora of Boraima to the floras of Venezuela, Guiana, and 

No answer, I say, has yet been attempted to this question ; nor can I pretend to 
suggest any. I am, however, able here to offer, as data to be considered in the question, 
some very general account of the flora of Guiana, and a rather more special account 
of the flora of Boraima in its relation to that of Guiana. 

Guiana, as has been said, rises gradually from the east toward the high tableland of 
the interior of the continent. Instead, however, of thus placing ourselves in imagination 
on its sea-coast and looking westward up its gradual slope, let us imagine ourselves on 
the tableland on Boraima, and that we are looking eastward down toward the sea. 
Were such a bird's-eye view really possible, we should find that the tableland, or savannah, 
as it is there called, is an open treeless country, its elevated surface hardly anywhere level, 
but swelling up in many hills, and even into some mountain-ranges. We find that only 
along the courses of the rivers, or in the other lower parts where water has accumulated 
in some form, are there more or less extensive belts of trees, and that, on the savannah 
itself, even these trees are, considering that we are in the tropics, of no great size. 
Further eastward, on the lower part of the slope toward the sea, where the rivers 
have already grown wider and approached each other more nearly, the trees are more 
numerous and larger. Still further eastward, lower down the slope, the belts of 
trees, each pertaining to its own river, have widened with the rivers, till they have 
approached and then joined each other ; here the trees are of yet larger size. At last, 
at the bottom of the slope, between its foot and the still far distant sea-waves, the wide 



tract of alluvial soil which has heen deposited, having either been brought down by the 
rivers or cast up from the sea, is virtually entirely occupied by the omnipresent forest of 
trees, which have there attained their true gigantic tropical size. If we except certain 
small patches of very swampy open land within this forest of the alluvial tract, locally 
called "wet savannahs," all is forest except the very narrow strip of land actually 
washed by the waves, and not even that toward the north. 

Very different and distinct floras characterize the parts of Guiana thus variously con- 
ditioned, though, naturally, a certain number of species are common to all three. 

Where the narrow sea-washed strip has been artificially disafforested, a generally 
dwarf and weed-like flora prevails, very rarely consisting of non-indigenous plants. 

Within the forest, after the generally great height of the trees and often the 
abundance of palms, perhaps the most noteworthy features of the vegetation, are in the 
first place, the great scarcity of mosses, herbage, and low-growing plants, especially of 
any with conspicuous flowers, and the consequent barrenness of the soil, which is relieved 
by only a few scattered ferns, ginger-worts, Caladiums and other aroids, Dieffenbachias, 
Cyperacese, and other shade-loving plants ; and, in the next place (though this is hardly 
discernible from below), the abundance of the flowering creepers and epiphytes spread 
over the matted tops of the dense and lofty trees. The representatives of the low-growing 
flowering plants of the thinner, lighter woods of temperate climates have here, in this 
dense shade of the tropical forest, to send their immensely long, flowerless, creeping stems 
up some one or even two hundred feet, to reach above the highest tree-branches, before 
they can break into bloom. Only as semiaquatics along the river-side there are a few 
showy-flowered dwarf plants. 

Quite different again is it on the savannahs, where, among the grasses which naturally 
form the chief vegetation, are scattered a considerable number of bright-flowered dwarf 
plants ; though even here the abundance of bloom very rarely reaches the extraordinary 
development which it often does in the meadows of temperate climates. Rather striking, 
too, is it that on these savannahs many of the bright-flowered plants, unlike those of tem- 
perate meadows, are here also true climbing-plants, leguminous chiefly, and various 
species of Eehites, though their stems, instead of climbing far and high over giant trees, 
here only ramble weakly over the short grasses. 

In each of these distinct floras of the coast, the forest, and of the savannah, the 
number of species is of course great ; but in each separate district the species charac- 
teristic of it are, as a rule, remarkably widely and evenly scattered throughout its extent. 
Por example, within the forest-district probably by far the larger number of species have 
an unbroken distribution throughout its extent, and of the remaining species most have 
an unbroken distribution throughout the district from north to south ; though they may 
be limited from east to west, according, that is, to the greater or less distance from the 
sea or to the higher or lower position on the general upward slope of the country. On 
the savannah, the level of which probably corresponds more or less closely with the 
general level of the main tableland of that part of the continent, the distribution of 
the main species is still more even and universal. On almost every part of the savannah 


certain grasses, dwarf shrubs, and herb-like plants, form the dominant vegetation. Yet 
a few remaining- parts are marked by the occurrence of certain distinct and, so to speak, 
localized species, which are scattered more or less widely among the more ordinary 
forms. Again, a very few other parts arc still more distinctly marked, and made very 
distinct areas, by the more or less complete absence of the ordinary forms, and the 
substitution there of an entirely new and generally very distinct set of species. These 
areas with a few localized species, several of which were passed by us on our way to 
Roraima, and still more these areas of distinct vegetation, of which the Kaieteur 
savannah which we traversed, and especially Roraima itself, are remarkably fine 
examples of the utmost botanical interest. 

A few notes must first be given of the species here described as localized. It is to be 
remembered that these notes were made during a single walk, long as it was, through a 
country otherwise almost absolutely unknown; so tbat though these species were noticed 
by me because I saw them either only in one spot, or at least in very few spots — L e. I 
passed through either only one distinct group or through very few such groups of them — 
yet it is, of course, impossible to assert that many other such distinct groups do not occur 
wherever the requisite soil and other circumstances permit. 

A considerable number of such localized species occur on tracts where the soil is of so 
peculiar a nature as to have earned a special name for such places from the natives, who 
call them Eppellings. This name is applied by the Arekoonas to certain tracts in 
which the underlying very soft sandstone is overlaid by a coating of hard dense and 
dry mud, or, in some other cases, of hard conglomerate. Wherever, as is often the 
case, this hard-mud surface is unbroken, it resembles an asphalt pavement, or, perhaps, 
rather a floor made of hard-beaten earth. But this curious earth-surface overlies hill and 
dale alike — is, therefore, not often level. Wherever, then, there has been the slightest 
crack in its surface, rain-water gathers, and, having once obtained a lodgment, eats away 
and enlarges the crack. The result is an eppelling surface, which, instead of being like 
an asphalt pavement, is like a pavement formed of irregularly-shaped and scattered flag- 
stones. But, again, the mud-layer which overlies the eppelling being by no means thick, 
whenever this has once been indented, as just described, by many cracks enlarged by 
water, these cracks are soon engraved through the mud-layer down to the soft sandstone 
below ; and, when this has once occurred, the sandstone thus exposed, which yields to the 
action of the water even more readily than does the hard mud, is rapidly worked out. In 
this way the eppelling is made to assume the form of a number of blocks of sandstone, 
often pillar-like. Each of such blocks is capped and protected by a patch of the original 
hard earth, or, in other cases, of the original conglomerate. (See woodcut, fig. 1, p. 251.) 

Now, where the original eppelling surface is unbroken, in which state we have com- 
pared it to an asphalt pavement, it is as entirely devoid of vegetation as such an artificial 
pavement would be. But where the surface of the eppelling has reached its furroweci 
stage, a few plants find lodgment, chiefly certain orchids and other such plants, of which 
the roots are of such a nature that, in the dry season, when the furrows are waterless, the 
whole plant shrinks into complete rest, and even in some cases loses its roothold, and is 



blown about on tbe surface of tbe eppelling until tbe next rains come, when it again 
throws out anchor-like roots into some new furrow. One orchid of this wandering ten- 
dency is a Catasetum ( O. cristatum ? [No. 

Fig. 1. 

148]) ; another is the new and very beautiful 
Oncidium, named and described by Mr. 
Ridley in the appended list as 0. orthostates 
[No. 12]. Sometimes, too, in this same state 
of the eppelling, especially where such ground 
occurs on the brows of exposed hills, shrubs 
of considerable size find anchorage in the 
furrows and flourish. One such hill-top 
which we passed was made very beautiful 
in this way by a large and isolated patch 
of the large rosy-flowered Bonnetia sessilis, 
Benth. [No. 11]. In another similar place 
we passed through a distinct patch of the 
compact Stifftia condensata, Baker [No. 110]. 
And more than one such place was distin- 
guished by thickets of Gomphia gnianensis 

•S^-ll [No - 15] * " 

Lastly, as regards the eppellings where 
the furrows of these places have been worked 
down into the sandstone, and have been much 
enlarged, the deep ravines and pits of all 
sizes thus formed, though bare of vegetation 
wherever the process of water-washing still 
continues in violent action, where this 
action has ceased owing to the stoppage of 
the outlet, or has become much moderated, 
are comparatively thickly clothed with vege- 

Another remarkable localized plant, though 
not occurring on an eppelling, was the beau- 
tiful Aplielandra pulcherrima ? [No. 14]. It 
has already been said that, even on the otherwise open savannahs, more or less extensive 
belts of forest often clothe the sides of the narrower parts of the valleys through which 
the rivers run. One such place we came to, where, after crossing the Ireng river and the 
low watershed which there separates that river from its tributary, the Karakanang, we 
were descending toward the level of the last-named river. It was here that, in a some- 
what extensive wood of which most of the trees were common species of Cassia, we found 
the dense, shrubby underwood to consist almost entirely of this beautiful scarlet-flowered 

Throughout a small tract on either side of the Ireng river, where the ground was almost 

Rook-pillars on the summit of Roraima. 


entirely covered by a gravelly layer of shattered conglomerate, a very beautiful herb, 
with dowers of an intense violet-blue — a very rare colour in Guiana — was common, and 
pleasantly reminded me of an English " viper's bugloss." It was Slachylarpheta mutabilis, 
Vahl [No. 1], which seems to me to correspond to my description of a localized species. 

Again, between the Ireng and the Cotinga rivers, there grew in abundance, and 
evidently as a native, a plant [Farcrcea gigantea] which, common enough near the coast 
of Guiana in cultivation, and even as an evident escape from cultivation, is nowhere else, 
as far as I have seen in many wanderings, wild in that colony. 

Lastly, as regards localized species, I would mention several dwarf bamboos, none of 
which, unfortunately, did I succeed in finding in flower. One of these, a wonderfully 
graceful species, appears to me peculiar, in that it grows in dense thickets on the open 
savannah. This was on the Ireng river, and more sparingly onward from there toward 
the Cotinga. Another of these bamboos (Chusquea [sp. ?], No. 18), I think the most 
graceful plant I ever saw, occurred sparingly, and only in one spot, on the Arapoo river 
close to the village of Tooroiking. A third bamboo, a climbing form ( Guadua) [No. 359], 
occurred to me first on the same river, but is much more common on lloraima itself, and 
should perhaps be spoken of in connection with the vegetation of that mountain. 

Turning next to the areas of distinct vegetation, the first to be mentioned is that of 

the Kaieteur savannah *. This is certainly a very remarkable place, with an equally 

remarkable vegetation. It is an open space, some two miles long by one across, in the 

heart of the ordinary dense forest, and some four days' journey on foot from the nearest 

open country. It has been said that the descent from the tableland of the interior 

toward the sea is not a gradual slope, but occurs chiefly in a series of step-like 

descents. These descents are generally of no great individual height ; but that 

of the Kaieteur takes the form of an almost abrupt cliff — at the Kaieteur fall itself it 

is an actual cliff — of between seven and eight hundred feet in height. The Potaro river, 

rising apparently from the neighbourhood of, but not actually on, Koraima, after an 

unknown upper course of considerable length, runs along one side of the almost 

perfectly level Kaieteur savannah, and precipitates itself, at the east end of that savannah, 

down the sheer descent of 800 feet. The savannah itself is virtually a flat exposed rock, 

many parts of which are as absolutely bare as a London pavement. This rock is 

sandstone, which, as in the eppellings (indeed it probably is one, but of unusually 

unbroken surface) is capped by a harder material, a layer of conglomerate. Just as 

the bard surface of the eppellings cracks, and eventually affords roothold in the fissures 

thus made for plants, so the hard conglomerate covering of the Kaieteur savannah has 

cracked, and in many of the fissures thus produced has given harbourage for plants. Some 

of these latter fissures have gradually been tilled up by the accumulation of vegetable 

matter ; others remain still open. On this savannah, however, the fissures are larger 

than is commonly the case in the eppellings — are, in fact, often very long but generally 

narrow fissures. Many of these are now entirely occupied by shrubs and dwarf trees. 

The lines of these masses of vegetation, necessarily following the direction of the fissures, 

* Some excellent " Remarks on the aspect and flora of the Kaieteur Savannah " were published by my friend 
Mr. G. S. Jenman in 'Timeum' vol. i. (1882) p. 229. 


present, in most remarkable degree, the appearance of the well-marked designs laid out by 
a landscape-gardener ; the whole effect is bike that of an artificial garden, with regular 
groups of shrubs separated by wide paths and roads of clean bare rock. Moreover, it is 
not only in the fissures that plants grow on this savannah. As on the eppellings, so here 
too, a certain number of plants find sufficient foothold in the vegetable accumulations in 
the slight depressions in the conglomerate sheet before these have^been engraved deeply 
enough to leave the sandstone exposed and to make regular fissures. 

But not only is the arrangement of the vegetation of the savannah thus very remarkable ; 
the plants composing this vegetation are also individually of great interest. As might 
be expected, very few of them occur in the forest which everywhere, and for a great dis- 
tance, surrounds this strange open space. Much more remarkable is it that very few of 
these plants occur on the nearest savannah, nor, indeed, on the general savannah-land of 
the interior. And, most noteworthy of all is it, a very large number of these peculiar 
plants of this isolated savannah occur, often with slight but interesting differences, on 

By far the most striking, as it is also the most abundant, plant on the Kaieteur savannah 
is a huge aloe-like Bromeliaceous plant, Brocchinia cordylinoides, Baker, which was 
gathered there by Mr. Jenman and myself some years ago, but which was, until the Roraima 
expedition, unknown elsewhere. This gigantic plant, so striking as to compel notice 
even from the most unobservant traveller, is ranged in enormous numbers on the Kaie- 
teur savannah, and indeed makes, to a large extent, the strangeness of that strange scene. 
There the height of a full-grown specimen, under favourable circumstances, is about 14. 
feet, and, in the older specimens at least, the crown of leaves is supported on a tall bare 
stem. It seems also there to flower abundantly. We shall see that the plant occurs, but 
with slightly different characters, on Roraima. Moreover, at the Kaieteur, in the axils 
of the leaves of this Brocchinia, and only in that position, grows a very remarkable and 
beautiful TJtricularia ( TJ. Humboldtii, Schombk.), with flower-stems 3 or 4 feet long, sup- 
porting its many splendidly large violet flowers. This plant too we found on Roraima, 
and with slightly different characters from those which it exhibits at the Kaieteur. 
Another remarkable and distinct plant on the Kaieteur savannah is a low-growing 
Brocchinia (B. reducta, Baker), also previously known only from there, and may be 
roughly described as resembling three or four sheets of yellowish-grey foolscap paper rolled 
loosely one round the other, the whole standing on one end of the roll. This plant I did 
not observe on Roraima, though I feel convinced that it will one day be found there ; but 
I did see it, in very considerable quantity, in one small district about halfway between the 
Kaieteur and Roraima. Only one other plant common, but with a difference of form, 
to the two districts can be mentioned here. Mr. Jenman found at the Kaieteur a very 
striking new Iforonobea (31. Jenmani, Engl.) ; and I found on Roraima another very 
remarkable congener (II. intermedia, Engl., No. 337), of which its describer says that it 
is intermediate between M. riparia and M. Jenmani. 

In short, the Kaieteur savannah and Roraima may be regarded as two isolated areas 
marked by a very peculiar vegetation, which vegetation is, however, to a noteworthy 
extent, common to the two. 



Before referring to the district of lloraima, I may mention that, if I may judge from 
the reports of the natives, and of the one or two white men who have been there, 
savannahs occur curiously like t li is very remarkable example at the Kaieteur (1) above 
Amailah fall on the Guriebrong river, a tributary of the Potaro, (2) above Orinidouie 
fall on the Ireng river, and (3) above a certain very large fall which exists (I have 
myself heard the roar of its waters) on tin; Potaro, about two days' boat journey 
above the Kaieteur. In each of these places the large and not easily mistakable 
JBrocchinia cordylinoides is credibly said to occur; and it seems highly probable that 
with this some of the other, hut less conspicuous, plants of the Kaieteur occur also on 
these other savannahs. In short, it may very probably be that each of these reported 
fall-savannahs is a distinct area, parallel and similar in vegetation to the Kaieteur 
savannah and to Rorairaa. In passing it may also here be noted that apparently a Broc- 
chinia, similar to B. cordylinoides, occurs on the Organ Mountains, near Rio, in Brazil, 
reached by Gardner in 1837, and that in the axils of its leaves occurs a Utricularia ( U. 
nelwmbifolia, Gard.) which, to judge from Gardner's passing descriptions, must be 
strikingly similar to U. Humboldlii as it occurs on the Kaieteur savannah. Possibly 

Fig. 2. 

' \ jk 

-— —pVYH^ 

w n 

antral c50?«!^#^ £5*328?** skkjbi 

View of the south-cast face of lloraima, showing the waterfall and ledge of ascent. 

the Organ Mountains, too, resemble in some of their vegetable features the Kaieteur 
savannah and lloraima *. 

* (iardner's description of the vegetation of the Organ Mountains (see his ' Travels in Brazil,' London, 1849, 
pp. 50-52. 402—403) reads extraordinarily like an account of the vegetation of Roraima. The height of the two 
elevations is about the same, but the Organ Mountains consist almost exclusively of granite, not, as Roraima does, of 


k l R 


Let us now pass to the consideration of Roraima itself as an area of distinct vegetation ; 
and in so doing a few words must first he said as to the physical features of the mountains. 
Roraima is one (certainly the best known, perhaps really the most remarkable) of a 
group of pillar-like sandstone mountains capped with hard conglomerate, which group 
is, it seems to me, identical in nature and origin with the groups of sandstone pillars, 
capped with conglomerate or hardened mud, of the eppellings already described. In 
short, Roraima and its fellow mountains seem to be an eppelling on a gigantic scale. 
Some notion of how large this scale is may be gathered from the fact that Roraima 
itself, one pillar of the group, is almost exactly four miles wide along its south-eastern 
face, and is apparently seven or eight miles long from south to north, and that its height 
is some 5000 feet above the general level of the plain from which it rises. 

This 5000 feet of height, it must be explained, is made up of a sloping base, the pedi- 
ment of the pillar, of about 3000 feet, which is surmounted by the more strict pillar-like 
portion, 2000 feet in height. The plateau on top of the pillar is a very slightly, 
almost imperceptibly, hollowed basin, four miles wide by some seven or eight long, 
over Avhich are scattered innumerable single rocks and piles of rocks, the largest 
of which are apparently some eighty or ninety feet in height. The sloping basal 
part of the mountain is, everywhere but toward the south-east, covered by dense, but 
not lofty forest; while on the south-east a considerable portion of it (which portion 
does not, however, extend up to the foot of the actual cliff) is treeless and grass- 
covered. The cliff itself is bare, but for a comparatively few mosses, ferns, grasses, and 
trailing plants clinging closely to the rougher parts of its surface, especially where the 
many waterfalls trickle down the rock-face, and for the dwarf shrubs, ever dwarfer and 
more alpine in character toward the top, which have found a lodgment on the few 
transverse ledges which break the evenness of the surface. The hollow basin at the top 
of the pillar is, wherever a little soil has accumulated in the depressions of the bare rock 
which constitutes the greater part of its surface, clothed with a dwarf herb-like vegeta- 
tion of most remarkable appearance, consisting largely of various species of Pcepalanthus, 
a Drosera, a few terrestrial orchids (these not very conspicuous in flower), a remarkable 
low r -growing aloe-like Abolboda of which I shall have more to say hereafter, various 
ground-clinging shrubs of alpine Vaccinuim-like character, and of a very few single 
shrubs, all of one species {Bonnetia JRoraimce, Oliv., n. sp. [No. 330]), of larger growth, 
even though this is but some three feet high. 

Nor in this brief sketch of the physical features of Rm-aima in their bearing on the 
vegetation is it possible to avoid mention of the great moisture of the atmosphere which 
surrounds the mountain. The shallow basin of the upper plateau always holds much 
water, and probably at times is almost full ; the sides of the cliff are ever moistened by 
the innumerable rills and streams poured down from the plateau above on to the 
sloping base ; and this basal portion itself is, on the more level undulating parts of its 
exposed surface, a mere spongy swamp, while in its forested parts it is traversed by 
almost innumerable rills hastening down to join the large rivers of the plain below. 

When dealing with the vegetation along our line of march to Roraima I pointed 
out that I could only pretend to speak of the plants actually along that line ; in now 


dealing with the vegetation of Roraima itself I can only speak of that of the south- 
eastern side of this mountain, which alone I was ahle to examine closely. We spent 
nearly a month on this side, where it is treeless, savannah-like, and swampy, and we 
climbed to the top of the mountain by a ledge running obliquely up the south-eastern 
face of its cliff (sec fig. 2, p. 257). 

It was not till we reached the top that we saw the most remarkable features in the 
wonderful plant-life of this very distinct area of vegetation. Even while only 
approaching the base of the mountain (which for convenience of description I will take 
to be marked on the south-eastern side by the bed of the Kookenaam river), and while 
we were still far off, we met for the first time with plants which we afterwards found 
commonly on Horaima, the outposts, as it were, of the remarkable group of plant-forms 
centred on Roraima. From the moment when the first of these distinctive plants of 
the mountain was met with till the moment, some weeks later, when we reached the top, 
we ever travelled onward into a more and more peculiar flora. 

Our discovery, on the savannahs a full day's journey from Roraima, of the first outpost 
of the vegetation of that mountain was a very distinct event. We found a well-marked 
dense patch, perhaps some 40 yards in diameter, of Abolboda Sceptrum, Oliver, nov. sp. 
[No. 312], a compact and dwarf, yucca-like plant, with a rosette, perhaps a foot and a half 
in diameter, of most acutely needle-pointed leaves. This plant appeared again in patches 
once or twice before we reached Roraima, and formed much of the turf, as it were, both 
of the savannah slope of the base of that mountain and also of the top. It was, when- 
ever it appeared, a constant source of annoyance and of danger, not only to the naked 
feet of my Indian companions, but also to my own canvas-clad feet. Luckily a rumour 
which in some way spread among us that these rosettes of vegetable bayonets were 
poisonous, after causing some rather comic alarm, proved groundless. Where we first 
found the plant, as also on the sloping base of the mountain, it was out of flower and, 
though its withered flower-stems were extant, was already seedless ; but on the top we 
found it in full and striking flower. From the centre of the rosette of leaves rises a 
single stem, perhaps 18 inches in height, crowned by a very regularly formed whorl of 
dependent yellow flowers. The general appearance — the facies, to use a term recognized, 
I believe, by botanists — was remarkably like that of the yellow form of the Crown 
Imperial {Fritillaria imperlaUs). For the botanical description of this interesting plant, 
as indeed of all the other new plants of which I shall attempt to describe the facies, I 
must refer to the list carefully worked out at Kew *. 

After passing the first station of Abolboda Sceptrum till we reached the actual foot of 
Roraima, at the bed of the Kookenaam river, we continued through a country over 
which, though it was still furnished chiefly with the ordinary savannah vegetation, were 
scattered a few, indeed as we advanced an ever-increasing number of new plants. Across 
this tract, about halfway between the station of Abolboda and the Kookenaam, runs the 
Arapoo river, which, falling down from Roraima, has its course marked in a pronounced 

* It may here be mentioned that three volumes of admirable original sketches of British Guiana plants by (Sir 
Robert?) Schomburgk exist in the Herbarium of the British Museum. Among these sketches are to be found many 
Roraima plants, and among others ALModa Sceptrum.. 

2k 2 


way by plants characteristic of that mountain, such as Marcetia taxifolia [No. 68], 
Cassia Boraima, Benth. [No. 71], Dimorphandra macrostachya, Benth. [No. 39], Meiss- 
ueria microlicioides, Naud. [No. 174], Galea ternifolia, Oliv. [No. 27]. To rue the most 
interesting plant on this river was a very beautiful little slipper-orchid {Selenipedivm 
Klotzschianum, Beichb. f. [No. 31]), which grew in the moist gravel of the river-bed, where 
the plant must frequently be under water. This plant we also found in great abundance 
on an island in the Cotinga river, on another in the Roraima river, and on a small creek, 
called Aroie, a tributary of the Cotinga. Naturally the Arapoo river, as are its fellows 
flowing from Boraima, is an artery allowing of the dissemination of the plants of that 

At last we reached the Kookenaam river, at the village of Teroota, at the base, that 
is, of Roraima. Even beyond the bed of the river, for some distance up the slope 
of the mountain, the tract of ordinary savannah vegetation still continues, its charac- 
teristic plants ever becoming more and more mingled with plants belonging to the 
Boraima flora, till the very distinctly marked zone of strictly Boraima vegetation is 

The course of the Kookenaam river, where it flows through the tract of neutral 
vegetation — vegetation, that is, not yet deprived of ordinary savannah plants, and not 
yet composed exclusively of Boraima plants — is, as was the course of the Arapoo river 
already described, very well defined by the large number of Boraima plants clustering 
on its banks. Among these may be mentioned various shrubs, Ilex Macoucoua, Pers. 
[No. 75], Dipteryx reticulata, Benth. ? [No. 73], Myrcia Roraima, Oliv. [No. 74], and 
another species close to M. Kegeliana, Berg [No. 82]) which in places fringe the banks of 
this stream, and are also characteristic of the upper, proper flora of the mountains. 
Along the banks of this river, after its emergence from the mountain, grows in the peaty 
soil at the water's edge a very beautiful and sweet-scented white orchid (Ayanisia alba, 
Bidley [No. 360]), and on the more rocky parts of the bank a very remarkable red 
passion-flower [No. 84], with panicles of many pendent flowers, each panicle having the 
appearance — the facies, to use that ugly but convenient term again — of a spray of fuchsia- 
blossom * It was here, too, in the deep cuttings made by the river and half filled up 
with huge blocks of stone which are now overgrown with gnarled trees and shrubs, that 
one of the most famous of all Roraima plants grows — Cat t ley a Laiorenceana, Reichb. f. 
[No. 80]. 

This Cattleya is doubtless the one collected by the Schomburgk brothers, and enumerated 
by Richard Schomburgk as C. pumila; for it appears to be the only representative of this 
genus occurring on this side, at least, of Roraima, and this was the only side visited by 
the Schomburgks. It grows apparently not high up on the mountain, but on the gnarled 
tree-trunks, close to the water, in the clefts through which the Kookenaam and some of 
its small tributary streams flow, at a height of about 3700 to 4000 feet above the sea. At 
the time of our visit, Mr. Siedel, an orchid collector, having set the natives to work 
to collect this plant for him, I have seen ten or twelve of these people come into 

* This passion-flower is well figured in Schomlmrgk's drawings, of which mention has already been made. 


camp, afternoon after afternoon, each laden with a basket (a good load for a man) full of 
these lovely plants, many of them then in full (lower. One day I myself, having 
gone down to the Kookenaam to bathe, gathered, just round the small pool I chose for 
that purpose, two most glorious clumps of this orchid, the better of the two having live 
spikes of (lower, of which one bore nine, each of the others eight, blossoms — in all forty-one 
of some of the largest and finest-coloured Catfleya-ilowers ever seen, on a single small 
plant, the roots of which easily lay on my extended hand *. 

Before now dealing with the plants actually of lioraima, it will be convenient to say a \'c\v 
ruore words as to the form of this south-eastern face of the mountain (woodcut, tig. 2). 

From the bed of the Kookenaam at Teroota (3751 feet) the mountain slopes, somewhat 
gradually though of course not evenly, upward for a distance of about three miles, till a 
height of 5000 feet is attained. This last-mentioned point is that to which a considerable 
number of the plants belonging to the ordinary savannah vegetation of Guiana ascend t. 
From this point the mountain rises, at first somewhat more abruptly and then again more 
gradually, so as to form, as it were, a terrace about midway up the slope. The upper 
level of this terrace, wdiich lies at a height of about 5400 feet, is almost everywhere 
swampy, though here and there a few rocks crop out. This is the place so enthusiastically 
described by Dr. Schomburgk, on account of the extraordinary richness of its vegetation, 
as a " botanical Eldorado ; " and it was here too, just within the forest which edges this 
swamp, that we built our house and made our headquarters. It is to this point that 
the open savannah extends ; for above it all is more or less densely forested. Between 
this swamp, lying along its terrace, is a ravine, and again, beyond this ravine, in which it 
must be remembered that the forest begins, the mountain slopes up very abruptly to a 
height of about 0500 feet, to the base, that is, of the actual cliff. In the accompanying 
diagram (woodcut, fig. 2, p. 257) all up to the ravine is distinguished as the savannah-slope ; 
all above, to the base of the cliff, as the forest-slope. It should also be noted that the forest- 
slope is not uniformly clad with trees. The lower part is densely wooded, covered, as it 
were, by dense jungle ; next comes a belt of bush, rather than of jungle; while still 
higher, just under the cliff, the masses of rock which have fallen from above lie like a 
moraine, on which are scattered sparse trees, the low, wide-spreading branches of which 
interlock in a remarkable way J. The actual face of the cliff is, of course, bare ; but 
wherever ledges run up for any distance these are often tree- or bush-clad ; and the one 
ledge which runs right up to the top, the one by which we ascended, is bush-clad 
to a point about two-thirds up, then bushlcss but plant-covered. 

In the ascent from Teroota up to about 5000 feet (nearly up, that is, to the commence- 
ment of the El Dorado swamp) we met with many plants new to me scattered among the 

* full descriptions of thia Cattleya have been given in the 'Gardeners' Chronicle,' 1S85, vol. sxiii. pp. .'17 I. 375, 
and vol. ssiv. p. 1U3. 

t The most conspicuous of tho few plants of the ordinary plain which ascend above this point are : — Polygala 
hygrophila, H. B. K. ; P. tongicaulis, H. B. K. ; P. variabilis, H. B. K. ; §ida linifolia, Cav. ; Drosera communis, 
A. St.-Hil. ; Pleroma Tibouchihum, Triana; Sipanea pratensis, Aubl. ; Pedis elongata, H. B. K. ; Gnaphalium 
spicatum, Lam.; and Centropogon surinamensis, Presl. 

J This moraine-like part of the slope is curiously like the well-known " Wistman's Wood " on Dartmoor. 


usual savannah plants. Conspicuous among these were three orchids, two growing on 
bare pebble-covered ground, the third on the huge boulders scattered over the slope. The 
two former were Oyrtopodium parviflorum, Lindl. [No. 55], with its handsome spike, 
often eighteen inches high, of many yellow and purple flowers, and the delicately beautiful 
white-flowered Kcellenstelnki Kellneriana, Eeichb. f. [No. 61], which latter grows also on 
the Kaieteur savannah. The third of the above-mentioned orchids was the curious Masda- 
vallia brevis, Reichb. f. [No. 286], with flowers more remarkable than beautiful. Another 
striking new plant also growing on the boulders of this part of the slope was a remarkably 
handsome and large Tiuja (?) [No. 45], with flowers of a magnificently deep indigo-blue — 
a colour so rare in the tropics. This Puya, Mr. Baker tells me, is probably a new and 
interesting species, but the dried specimens of it which I deposited at Kew are unfortu- 
nately not sufficient for its determination. I have, however, some fine young living plants 
of the species. 

I come now to the description of the El Dorado swamp, for the place is really so 
remarkable botanically as to be worthy of distinction under this name. It is worth, also, 
another effort to give some picture of the appearance of the place. The swamp (botanists 
will understand that the rather dismal suggestions of this word are often, as certainly in 
this case, undeserved) lies on a terrace midway up the mountain. Its surface is very 
uneven, audit is consequently much wetter in some parts than in others — its flatter parts 
and its hollows so saturated with wet that the foot of one who walks there sinks often up 
to the ankle ; its higher parts islands, rarely of any great size, of dry ground scattered 
through the swamp. Often from these dry islands considerable groups of rocks 
crop out and sometimes rise to a considerable height. In the wetter parts the grass, 
which, of course, forms the main vegetation, is everywhere high, rank, and coarse ; on 
the islands of drier ground the grass is finer and even turf-like ; from the actual rocks 
grass is absent. Each of these two aspects of the swamp, wet ground and dry rocky 
island, presents a distinct vegetation, of which almost the only common feature is dis- 
tinction from the vegetation outside this El Dorado. 

Mingling and vying in height with the rank grass * of the wet parts, their flowers 
mingling with the blossom of the grasses, are plants of wonderful beauty. The ever lovely 
violet-flowered TJtricularia Humboldtii, Schombk. [No. 43], is there, growing, not, as on 
the Kaieteur savannah, as an epiphyte, but with independent roots in the ground ; but of 
this I shall have more to say presently. The Abolboda is there too, in a form slightly 
larger and much less compact than is natural to it when growing on drier ground. The 
flag-leaved, yellow-flowered Xyris setirjera, Oliver [No. 62], and the small pink-flowered 
Begonia tovarensis, Klotzsch [No. 141], are also there. A very few plants of Broc- 
chinia cordylinoides, Baker, just two or three single specimens, are there ; but of this 
I shall have more to say presently. Various ferns are there, especially the magnificent 
Cycad-like Lomaria Boryana, Willd. (L. Schomburgk'd, Klotzsch) ; also many orchids ; 
a "lady's slipper" (Selenipedium Mndleyanum, Pteichb. f. [No. 53]), with huge-branched 
flower-stems, each bearing many blooms, the whole plant, flower, leaf, and stem alike, all 

* The grasses chiefly noticed at this place were -.—Paspalum stdlatum, Fliigge ; Panicum nervorum, Lara.; Arun- 
flinella brusUiensis, ltaddi. 


velvety in texture, and of various shades of one colour, the colour of sunlight as it falls 
through green young heech-leaves ; the heautii'ii\Zygopetaluml3'urkeii,1&eictib.f.[No. 50]*, 
with flowers seeming like gigantic, pale-coloured "bee orchises" [Ophrys apifera, 1 1 mis.), 
but far sweeter in scent ; in great abundance the rosy-flowered Pogonia pwrviflwa, Reichb. t. 
[No. 115], which recalls in habit our English wild tulip (Tulipa sylvestris, L.) ; and, to 
mention but one more among many, Ephlendrum elongatum, Jacq. [No. 42], its stems 
varying in height from one to eight feet, its verbena-like clusters of flowers varying in 
colour in different plants, some pale yellow, some fawn-colour, many pure rich pink, dark 
purple, and even mauve. This last-mentioned orchid, it may be noted in passing, is 
one of a group to which I shall presently refer. 

The effect of the whole is as of an Alpine meadow, coloured in early summer by 
innumerable flowers of the brightest and most varied tints. 

If this tall vegetation be anywhere parted by the hand of the curious traveller, under- 
neath it is seen a carpet of other, low-growing, plants — Pcepalanthus Schomburgkii 
[No. 33] and P. jlavescens, Korw. [No. GO], Drosera communis, A. St.-IIil. ? [No. 313], 
a pretty little orchid, Spirauthes bifida, Ilidley [No. 342], ferns, Lycopodiums, and 
sphagnum-like mosses. 

One, perhaps the most remarkable, plant of the swamp has not yet been noticed. It is 
the South-American Pitcher-plant, Hcliamphora nutans, Benth. [No. .258], which grows 
in wide-spreading, very dense tufts in the wettest places, but where the grass happens not 
to be long. Its red-veined pitcher-leaves, its delicate white flowers raised high on red- 
tinted stems, its sturdy habit of growth, make it a pretty little picture wherever it grows. 
But it attains its full size and best development, not down here in this swamp, but up on 
the ledges on the cliff of Roraima, and even on the top. 

The vegetation of the drier, rocky patches is very different. A few shrubs of from four 
to eight feet in height, a very few stunted and gnarled trees are there, a few single speci- 
mens of the one Roraima palm (Geonoma Appuniana), which, as will presently be told, is 
much more abundant higher up ; but more abundant are very dwarf shrubs of curiously 
Alpine aspect, such as Gaultheria cordifolia, H. B. K. [No. 103], and various trailing 
plants, such as a blackberry {Bubus guianensis, Focke [No. 106]), a passion-flower 
[No. 110], and a few orchids and ferns. 

Of the orchids the most noteworthy is Oncidium nigratum, Lindl. [No. 114], its 
delicately thin, but wiry and much-branched stems, five feet high or more, seeming to float 
in the air a crowd of innumerable, tiny, butterfly-like flowers of cream-colour and 1 thick ; 
but two others {Zijgopetalum Burkeii and Bpidendrum elongatum), which we have already 
seen in rank luxuriance in the wetter parts of the swamp, grow also on these drier parts, 
but are here much reduced in general habit, though with larger and brighter-coloured 
flowers. Of the ferns the most striking are a beautifully delicately cut Scliizcea (S. dicho- 
toma, Sw. [No. 100]) and a very remarkable Gymno gramme (G. elaphoglossoldes, Baker, 
[Nos. 101 & 215]), of which more hereafter. 

Again, the tiny coppices which are on the swamp and the forest which bounds it 

* This is represented on the Organ Mountains by Z. Mackaii, Hook. 


which forest, it must he rememhered, covers on the other faces of the Roraima slope what 
is here swamp — are full of interesting trees. One with vast numbers of large magnolia- 
like white flowers is Moronobcea intermedia, Engler [No. 337], the new species 
already alluded to as very closely allied to a second new species, If. Jenmani, Engl., which 
occurs in corresponding circumstances on the Kaietcur savannah. Another abundant 
tree represents an entirely new genus, Crepinella gracilis, Marchal [No. 162] ; another is a 
new species of Sciadophyllum (S. coriaceum, March. [No. 128]). Another common, 
and strikingly beautiful, tree is a variety of Eyrsonima crass/folia, H. B. K. [No. 130], 
with leaves the under surfaces of which are tinted with so deep and rich a violet as to 
impart a very striking violet shade to the whole tree, even when it is seen from a distance. 
Under the shade of these and the hosts of other trees ground-shrubs and tree-trunks alike 
are swathed in thick green mosses. There, too, but half clinging to the tree-trunks, are 
various species of Psammisia [Nos. 56 & 49], woody-stemmed creepers, the innumerable 
drop-like crimson flowers of which, as they catch the tiny gleams of light striking down 
between the thick leaves of the forest-roof, glow with intense colour. In these shady, 
moss-covered, quiet places stand erect many tree-ferns [Nos. 92, 270, 87, 37] and 
a very beautiful new aroid (Anthnrium roraimense, N. E. Brown [No. 261]), its huge 
heart-shaped leaves and large arum-like flowers of pm*est white carried high on a slender 
but stiff stem. There, too, are innumerable ferns of wonderful interest, and many, but 
not showy, orchids — especially of the latter family, many of those tiniest and most 
delicate species which, if seen under a powerful magnifying-glass, would rival the most 
showy and graceful of their kindred of our hothouses. 

We must now pass to the forest-slope, which, as has been said, consists of three 
fairly distinct belts or zones, which I have called respectively, beginning from the 
lowest, the jungle-belt, the bush-belt, and the belt of rock and tree. 

The jungle is most densely interwoven with many tall shrubs or dwarf trees, which 
are yet more closely knit together by vast quantities of a climbing, straggling bamboo 
(Guadua [No. 359]), of a cyperaceous plant (Cryptangium stellatum, Bceckl. [No. 357], 
with rough, knife-edged leaves and tall, weak stems, which support themselves on, and 
at the same time densely clothe, the shrubs among which it grows*, and of a gigantic and 
handsome climbing fern (Glcichenia pubescens, H. B. K. [No. 313]). Among the shrubs 
also are two palms : one, in vast quantities, very stout and erect-stemmed, and large- 
leaved, Geonoma Appmniana, Spruce [No. 382] ; the other, occurring only in a few scattered 
examples, a Euterpe, probably E. edulis, Mart., but, if so, in a most remarkably 
stunted and dwarfed form. It is worth noting here that, despite the reported specific 
abundance, by Schomburgk and Appun, of palms about Roraima, these are literally the 
only two plants of that Order which I saw on the mountain. Under the shrubs 
forming this jungle the ground was everywhere swathed with mosses, closely inter- 
mingled with innumerable ferns, especially filmy ferns ; and this mossy covering 
reached up over the tree-stems and branches everywhere but where the sunlight 
fell. Under the shade of these shrubs, in the darkness and damp, grew various 

* This is also a Kaietcur plant, 


high-drawn terrestrial orchids, pallid plants with inconspicuous and pah; flowers (Steno- 
ptera viscosa, Reichb. f. [No. 131]). 

Undoubtedly the most striking feature of the vegetation of this jungle-belt was the 
curious abundance and variety of the Ferns. Of these, two seem to require special 
mention here. One is the Gymnogramme [No. 181] already mentioned as occurring 
on the rocks in the swamp ; it was abundantly distributed from the swamp nearly to 
the top of the mountain. It will be further mentioned in connection with a closely 
allied species occurring on the top. The second fern to he distinguished represents a 
very remarkable new genus, on which Mr. Baker has dwelt at some length in his report 
on the plants of the expedition. The genus he has called Endoterosora [No. 181] ; the 
species he has been good enough to gratify me by naming after my friend the late William 
Hunter Campbell, LL.D., a man who, for very many reasons, but especially for his con- 
stant endeavours to forward the scientific interests of the colony, deserved so well of the 
people of Guiana. It is perhaps worthy of mention that this plant so closely resembles in 
outward appearance a form of an entirely different genus (Polypodivm bifurcatum, L. 
[Xo. 184 ex parte]), that I collected and dried it in mistake for that plant. Were it 
possible to conceive that this resemblance could be of any benefit to the genus Etido- 
terosora, it might be supposed that its very close resemblance to Polypodium bifurcatum 
was an instance of ' mimicry.' 

Above the jungle-belt comes the bush-belt. Here the shrubs, much fewer in number 
and so scattered over the ground as to leave wide intervening spaces, appeared to me 
generally of much the same species as in the lower belt. Here, however, as is not 
the case below, they are sufficiently distributed to be individually distinguishable. 
Among them the most prominent are a great number of species of JPsychotria [Nos. 83, 
115, 185, 232], and a very remarkable yellow-flowered Melasma, M. ? spathaceum, Oliver, 
n. sp. [No. 210], of which Professor Oliver writes that the specimens supplied him are 
too imperfect to afford means of final determination whether this should not be regarded 
as the type of a new genus distinct from Melasma ; and, in great abundance, a Groton (C. 
surinamensi, Muell. Arg., aff. [No. 235]). Here, too, as below, but as is not the case in 
the jungle-belt, occur a large number of plants of Brocchinia cordylmoides, still in its 
small Roraiina, not in its larger Kaieteur form, as well as great quantities of the huge 
Stegolepis guianensis, Klotzsch. [No. 338], the iWs-like plants of which, being provided 
with a great abundance of slimy matter, made walking most difficult, in parts where they 
grew densely. The Brocchinia, too, grew in parts so densely that we had to walk, not on 
the ground, but on the crowns of the plants, which, as we crushed them with our feet, 
poured from the axils of their leaves the remarkably abundant water which they 
retain ; and very cold water it was, over our already too cold feet. Nor must I omit to 
mention, though I propose afterward to sum up my observations on the Broccli'niia and 
on the various species of TJtricularia, that in this bush-belt a very few plants (I saw not 
more than three or four) of TJtricularia Humboldtii, Schombk. [No. 43], of the dark 
Roraiina form, were growing in the axils of the Brocchinia-le&ves, as at the Kaieteur. 

Two other very interesting plants appeared to us first in this bush-belt, though we 



afterwards found that they extended almost, if not quite, up to the top of the mountain. 
One, Lisiantlms, L. macrantho aff. [No. 188], was a large succulent-leaved herb, 
almost shrub-like, with very large rich purple-crimson flowers centred with white, which 
would probably be a most valuable and gorgeous addition to our cultivated stove-plants. 
The other was the most delicately beautiful, the most fairy-like, and at the same time, 
for its size, the most showy plant I ever saw. It was a new TJtricidaria, which Professor 
Oliver, at my request, has kindly named also after William Hunter Campbell ; U. Camp- 
bellicma, Oliv., n. sp. [No. 187], grew among the very dwarfest mosses clinging to the 
tree-trunks and boughs. The plant, that is the root and leaves, is so tiny that it was 
almost impossible to detect it when not in flower. The erect stem, an inch or more high, 
is hair-like ; and on this is borne one (sometimes two) large and brilliant red flower, 
somewhat of the colour and size of the flowers of Sophronitls grandiflora. 

One more feature of the bush-belt claims notice ; the tree-ferns, occurring, indeed, 
in the lower jungle-belt, but there crushed out of all form and lost in the too densely 
packed struggle of plants, are here, in the greater and freer space, able to develop then' 
true form and beauty, and so rise with stout erect stems to bear far overhead their 
regularly shaped majestic crowns of thickly growing fronds. 

Next, of the rock and tree-belt all that need be said is that the same species as in the 
lower belt seem to occur, but that these are here, for some rather obscure reason, repre- 
sented by larger and more developed individuals ; that the Ferns, both the Tree-ferns and 
the more dwarf species, and one of the Palms, Geonoma [No. 382], become yet more 
abundant ; and that the mossy universal covering which I have already dwelt on as 
occurring below, here becomes so immensely dense and all-pervading (the Mosses are so 
deep on rock and ground, and hang in such dense, long masses from all trees and branches) 
as to produce on the mind of one who penetrates into this remarkable spot, a wonderful 
and extraordinary effect of perfect and entire stillness, as though, everything being 
wrapped in so dense and so soft a covering, all sound and all possibility of sound were 
stilled, deadened, and annihilated. 

Just where the rock and tree-belt meet the base of the cliff is a very narrow strip 
of quite distinct vegetation, so distinct, indeed, that we might almost regard it as a 
distinct belt, which we might call the bramble-belt. The ground there is covered by a 
dense thicket of bramble-bushes (Rubus guianensis, Focke [No. 106]), in general appear- 
ance altogether like English blackberry -bushes. Among this were large masses of the 
South- American form, appearing very similar to the English form, of the common 
Bracken, Pteris aquiUna, L. There, too, were many little bushes of Marcetia taxifolia, 
very strongly suggestive of English heath, and there, also, was a flowering Laurustinus 
(Viburnum glabratum., H. B. K. [No. 220]), curiously like the familiar plant of our gardens. 
To me, after my long stay in the tropics, the whole scene suddenly seemed very home- 
like and pleasant. But the next minute, as I turned in another direction, the illusion 
was dispelled by the sight of great thickets of palms (Qeonoma Appuniana) and a few 
singly standing and very stately tree-ferns. 

Up from the bramble-belt, passing obliquely up the cliff face, ran the ledge by which 


we ascended to the top of Roraima. The lower part of the ledge, for perhaps two 
thirds of its length, is wide, much broken, and very uneven. This part is somewhat 
irregularly bush-covered. Then the continuity of the ledge is suddenly almost broken 
by a deep ravine, a part of the rock having been worn away by a stream which falls on 
to it from the eliff above. The ravine thus made is almost bare of vegetation. Above, 
the ledge slopes somewhat steeply, but evenly, i'rom the point where it commences again 
to the to}), and this part of it is covered by a dwarf vegetation never more than two 
or three feet high. 

The shrubs on the part of the ledge below the ravine seem to be generally much the 
same as on the forest slope ; but among these a few new ones appear. Among the latter 
were the very beautiful Drimys granatensis, Mutis [No. 242], with its very beautiful 
white flowers, like pendent wood-anemones, a new and beautiful Microlicia (Microlicia 
brijanthohles, Oliver, n. sp. [No. 239]), and several more species of Psychotria [Nos. 191, 
291]. There, too, was an abundance of the Lisianthus [No. 188] already mentioned, and 
of TJtricularia Campbelliaiia. 

At the bottom of the ravine into which the stream falls the rocks are bare but for a 
large number of a pretty white-flowered Myrtus (31. stenophylla, Oliv., n. sp. 
[No. 321]), which, met with nowhere else, was growing abundantly in the spray of the 
falling water. 

Beyond this ravine, on the upper part of the ledge, the true botanical paradise 
began. The main vegetation is formed of Brocchmia cordylinoides, Baker (in the axils 
of the leaves of which grows TJtricularia Hiimboldtii), Abolboda Sceptrum, Oliv., and 
Stegolepis guianensis, Klotzsch [No. 338]. Among these were a great many plants 
entirely new to me and of most striking beauty. Many of these were shrubby, but of 
so diminutive a character as to be strictly alpine. Of these, by far the most beautiful 
was a wonderful heath-like plant, with dark green-leaved stems, stout and sturdy, but 
yet seeming almost overweighted by their great load of intensely vivid crimson star-like 
flowers. This plant [No. 308] Professor Oliver has identified as a Ledolhamnus, possibly 
a variety of L. guianensis, Meissner, but of much more slender form than is attributed 
to that plant in Martius's Fl. Brasil. vii. 172. 

Another shrublet, in character recalling the " Alpine rose " (Rhododendron ferrugi- 
neum), bore even more disproportionately large flowers, of an exquisite pink colour. It 
was a Befaria, approaching B. resinosa, Mutis [No. 310]. Other tiny shrubs were a 
white, feather-flowered Wewmarmia ( W. glabra, L. fil., var. [No. 214]), a myrtle (31. n. sp. 
aff. myricoidi, H. B. K. [No. 189]), yet another species of Psychotria (P. imThurniana, 
Oliver, n. sp. [No. 103]), a Baccharis (B. Vitis-Idcea, Oliver, n. sp. [No. ^41]), and a 
Vaccinium (V . floribundum ? H. B. K. [No. 329]). On most of these tiny shrubs was 
growing an appropriately tiny Misseltoe, Phoradendron Eoraimce, Oliver, n. sp. [No. 323], 
a miniature of an English plant. Among all these, many other interesting plants 
occurred. There grew, in far greater luxuriance and size than below, the pitcher- 
plant, Heliamphora nutans, Benth. [No. 258]; also great masses of two species of Xyris, 
X. Fontanesiana, Kunth [No. 257], and X. witsenioides, Oliv., n. sp. [No. 240], the latter 
very striking and curious by reason of the Witsenia-\ike habit of their dark green-leaved 

2 s 2 



stems, with pretty star-like yellow flowers. Lastly, I found a plant with a flower which, 

because of its form and colour, I at first sight mistook for a fritillary, like our " Snake's- 

head " (F. meleagris) ; but it was a new Lisianthiis, which Professor Oliver has named 

L. imThurniamis, Oliv., n. sp. [No. 306]. There grew many small but pretty and 

bright-coloured orchids — two new species of Fpidendrum (E. montigenum, Ridley, n. sp. 

[No. 322], and another [No. 304]); also a plant of a new genus of Cryptangiese named by 

Mr. Ridley Everardia (F. montana, Ridley [No. 335]). 

So the vegetation of the ledge continued to the top, and indeed actually extended 

over the top (woodcut, fig. 3). 

Fig. 3. 

View at the point of entrance of the plateau on the top of Roraima. 

The general effect of the vegetation of Roraima, fitly rivalling in this respect the 

marvellously strange geological aspect of the place, is so strange as to be very difficult of 

precise description. It occupies more or less wide tracts, generally almost level, 

between the bare flat rocks and the groups of piled rocks which occupy the greater part 

of the plateau. In such places it forms a dense carpet of vegetation, which is generally 

but a few inches, never more than a couple of feet, in height, except where, from 

its general level, rise a few scattered individuals of the one shrub of any conspicuous 

height, Bonnetia Foraimce, Oliv., n. sp. [No. 330] — and that was never more than 

from 30 to 40 inches in height — or the many and very remarkable flower-stems of 

Abolboda Sceptrvm, Oliv. [No. 312], which, to my great delight, at that height still 

bore its beautiful blooms, the appearance of which I have already described. Through 

this carpet of vegetation ran many small streams ; and even in other places much water 

everywhere saturated the turf. A very few small plants also grew in the crevices of the 

piledrocks, which otherwise were bare of vegetation. 


The chief constituents of this turf-like vegetation were vast quantities of a new species 
of Papal an thus (P. Roraima}, Oliv., n. sp. [No. 294]), and great masses of S/ihoguum-liku 
mosses. In the latter grew, in such ahundance as to redden the ground, the pretty little 
Sundew (Drosera communis, A. St.-H. [No. 313]). Groups of very luxuriant Pitcher- 
plants (Ileliamphora) were there also. Great quantities of tiny shrubs, of alpine character, 
interwove their branches with each other and with the mosses ; among these were 
We'mmannia guianensis, Klotzsch [No. 327], Marcetia juniperina, DC. [No. 319], Psy- 
chotria concinna, Oliv., n. sp. Baccliaris [No. 241], Ledolhamuus [No. 308], Befaria 
[No. 310], Vacciniiim [Nos. 326, 329], Pernettya [No. 333, ex parte], and Gaultheria 
[No. 332]. The small Epidendra, as on the ledge, were here too, as was also the tiny 
Misseltoe (Phoradendron [No. 323]) and the Fritillary-like Lisianthits [No. 306]. 

A beautiful Tofieldia (T. Schomburgkiana, Oliv., n. sp. [No. 297]) and the somewhat 
similar Nietneria corymbosa, Kl. & Sch. [No. 298], with large yellow flowers, were 

In the crevices of the rocks the vegetation was different. There was a very beautiful 
TJtricularia (TJ. montcma? Jacq. [No. 293]), larger and deeper in colour, but slightly less 
graceful, than TJ. CampbeUiana, and there were three species of fern. One of these 
latter was a very stunted form of Lindsay a striata, Dryand. [No. 301], which, in its 
ordinary form, is common in many parts of Guiana. The other two were absolutely new 
— one a Eymeiwphyllum, which Mr. Baker has named H. defectum, Baker, n. sp., [No. 
318] ; the other a Gymnogramma ( G. cyclophylla, Baker, n. sp. [No. 295], a second species 
of the same group of this genus to which belongs G. elapltoglossoides, Baker, n. sp., 
[Nos. 101, 215], found on the lower slopes of Roraima. Only one other species of this 
very distinct group is known, and that has been found in the Amazon valley. 

I have now briefly noticed the most striking plants which we met with on Roraima ; 
but, before closing this paper, there are one or two points which I wish, finally, to set 
down in order. 

First, as to Brocchinia cordylinoides, Baker ; this is only known to occur on the 
Kaieteur savannah and on Roraima, but in the latter place apparently only above a 
height of 5500 feet. There is a remarkable difference of vigour in the habit of the plant 
at these two places respectively. After seeing a large number of individuals of the plant 
at both places, it is obvious that at the Kaieteur it attains a much greater size and forms 
a much taller stem ; and, if I may judge from the comparative abundance or scarcity of 
flower-stalks, it seems to flower much more freely at the Kaieteur than on Roraima. 
A possible explanation of some of these facts seems to be that the position and the 
circumstances that it finds on Roraima, are beneficial to the plant ; that the most impor- 
tant of these circumstances of its existence is an atmosphere, like that of Roraima or of 
the Kaieteur, so saturated with moisture as to effect the constant replenishment of the 
large quantity of water retained in the leaf -axils of the plant ; and that the plant having 
found its way to the Kaieteur (which, though much below the proper level, is atmospheri- 
cally so peculiarly suited for it), it has taken root there and, in its new surroundings of 
higher temperature, has there developed a new vigour. Lastly, as regards this plant, I 
cannot refrain from once more alluding to its possible, even probable, distribution in the 
other widely scattered distinct areas already enumerated. 

Closely connected with the Brocchinia is TJtricularia Humboldt ii. Like the Brocchinia, 


this plant grows both at the Kaieteur and on Roraima ; but at the former station it 
apparently always grows floating in the water retained in the leaf -axils of the Brocchinia, 
while on Rorairna it grows abundantly with its roots in the ground, and only very rarely 
in close association with the Brocchinia. The Roraima plant is, moreover, far more 
beautiful, its flowers are of a far more intense colour, than is the Kaieteur plant ; this 
latter circumstance is possibly mostly due to the greater vigour which the plant displays 
when its roots are in the ground. I have already alluded to the occurrence of a very 
similar Utricnlaria on the Organ Mountains, associated with a huge Bromeliad, just as 
it is at the Kaieteur with the Brocchinia. 

Next, the two other large-flowered species of Utricnlaria from Roraima claim notice, 
U. Campbellicma has already been described. It occurs abundantly, but apparently 
only on the forest-slope and for some distance from this up the cliff. 

The other species, U. montana, Jacq., aff. [No. 293], appears to occur only in crevices in 
the rocks on the summit. U. montana has been previously recorded from the West 
Indies, Colombia, and Peru. The two species, though somewhat alike in general 
character, are, at a second glance, evidently very distinct. TJ. Campbelliana is altogether 
a more delicate plant ; its leaves are much smaller, rounder, and its stems are shorter ; 
its bladders are disk-shaped. The other species is altogether a stouter plant, with longer- 
stalked strap-shaped leaves and with spindle-shaped bladders. 

To one other set of plants I should here like to call attention. These are represented 
from among the plants collected during the Roraima expedition by two species of Epi- 
dendrnni (E. Schomburgkii, Lindley [No. 13], and E. elongatum, Jacq. [No. 42]). These 
seem to me to be plants, from the dry rocky ground of the interior of the country, which 
correspond more or less closely with three forms, in a fresh state evidently very distinct, 
but of which dried herbarium specimens have all been classed under the one name of 
E. imatophyllum, and all three of which occur on trees near the coast. Of these coast- 
forms, the most distinct is one of constantly bifloral character, which occurs low down on 
trees overhanging the brackish water at the estuaries of the rivers ; another, occurring on 
the tops of bushes slightly higher up the rivers, is, in general facies and in colour, very 
similar to the typical E. Schomburgkii ; and the third, occurring in similar positions, but 
more sparingly, more nearly approaches in facies E. elongatum, but is constantly of a 
peculiar scarlet colour. The two last-mentioned forms, unlike any of the others, are in- 
variably associated with ants, either because these creatures prefer to make their nests in 
the roots of the plants, or because the seeds of the plants find their most suitable nidus, 
and germinate, in the ants' nests. 

[Note.— The following determinations and descriptions of new plants were expressly drawn up for 
publication in tlic ' Transactions of the Linnean Society/ a confidential copy being given to Mr. E. P. 
im Thurn to help him in writing the foregoing Introduction. During the delay required to prepare the 
accompanying Plates, Mr. im Thurn has taken the unprecedented course of printing the whole of the 
unrevised draft, at Demerara, in ' Timehri, the Journal of the Royal Agricultural and Commercial 
Society of British Guiana,' vol. v. pp. 145-223 (Dec. 1886), thus forestalling the present publication. — 
Sec. L. S.] 


II. List of the Species of Plants collected, and Determmations of those 
that are new. By Prof. Oliver, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

242. DltlMYS granatensis, Mutis. Ledge. 
40. Gtjatteria. In (he absence of fruit, may be referred to G. Ouregou, Dun. 
Arapoo 11. 
258. Heliamphora nutans, Benth. 5400 ft. and top. 
96, 151. Saitvagesia erecta, L. forma. 5400 ft, 

309. Leitgebia imTherniana, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plato XXXVII A. figs. 1-8); floribus 
distincte pedicellatis, coronse squamulis oblongo-spathulatis antberis sequilongis v. 
longioribus. — lloraima : ledge and summit. 

Caulis plus minus vamosus, pennse corvinse crassitio. Folia imbricata, coriacea, oblan- 
ceolata, acutiuscula, apicem vei-sus utrinque 2-3-crenato-denticulata, glabra, oblique 
nervosa, ^ poll, longa ; stipulse scariosse, fimbriatae. Mores ad apices ramulorum, -|-| poll, 
diam., pedicello ^ poll, longo, 2-3-bracteolato, bracteolis anguste linearibus, stipulatis, 
stipulis lineari-subulatis longe ciliatis. Sepala lineari-laueolata, acuta, rigidiuscula, \ poll, 
longa. Petala obovata, integra, ^ poll, longa. Corona basi filamentis coalita, squamulis 
5 obtusis, coloratis. Ovarium glabrum, in stylum attenuatum. 

Allied to L. guianensis, Eicbl., but much more slender, with the flowers distinctly 
pedicellate, and the coronal squamae equal to or overtopping the anthers. 

26. Polygala hygrophila, H. B. K. Arapoo B,. 
97. P. longicaulis, H. B. K. 5400 ft. 
252. P., an P. variabilis, H. B. K. var. ? 5400 ft. 
79. Qtjalea Schombtjrgkiana, Warm. ? By Teroota. 

337. Moronobea intermedia, Engl., sp. nov. ; ramidorum internodiis brevibus ; foliis 
crassis, valde coriaceis, concoloribus, obovato-oblongis, in petiolum brevem canalicu- 
latum angustatis, nervis lateralibus numerosis, paten tibus, subtus paullum prominulis; 
floribus breviter pedicellatis, sepalis 5 suborbicularibus, cinerascentibus ; petalis quam 
sepala circ. sexies longioribus ; staminum phalangibus 5-andris, superne tantum 
leviter spiraliter tortis, petala fere requantibus ; ovario oblongo-ovoideo in stylum 
duplo breviorem stigmate 5-fldo coronatum attenuato. 
Omnino intermedia inter Moronobeam ripariam et Jloronoberun Jewmcmni, a priori non 

nisi foliis paullo majoribus et nervis minus prominulis, ab altera floribus duplo minoribus, 

ab utraque phalangibus andrcecei minus tortis diversa. — Engler. 

72. Marcgraavia coriacea, V.?, vel umbellata, L. (imperfect). Near house, 

5400 ft. 
11. Bonnetia sessilis, Benth. Between Ireng and Cotinga R. 
Label misplaced or missing. B. paniculata, Spreng. ? 


330. Bonnetia RoRAiMiE, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XXXVII. B. figs. 9-17) ; foliis coriaceis, 
parvis, oblanceolatis v. obovato-oblongis, obtusiusculis, apicem versus obscure denticu- 
latis, eveniis, brevissime crassiuscule petiolatis ; floribus ad apices ranmlorum sessilibus 
bracteatis ; sepalis late ellipticis, obtusis, breviter apiculatis, ciliolatis ; petalis calyce 
longioribus cuueato-obovatis, truncatis v. leviter eraarginatis ; filanientis brevibus, 
basi iu plialangibus 5 coalitis ; antberis obovato-turbinatis, ernargiuatis ; ovario iu 
stylum crassiusculum apice 3-fidum angustato. 

Summit of Roraima. 

Polia conferta, imbricata, 4-7 lin. longa. Plores §— | poll. diam. 

A very distinct species, of which our material is rather imperfect. 

8. Mahurea existipttlata, Benth. Aroie Creek. 
288. Ternstrcemiacea ? (inadequate). Path to upper savannah. 

22. Sida linlfolia, Cav. Arapoo R. 
130. Btrsonima crassifolia, H. B. K., var. ? Near house. 
136. Tetrapteris ? (no fruit). Near house. 

255. Tetrapteris rhodopteron, Oliv., sp. nov. ; ramulis appresse sericeis ; foliis petio- 
latis, obovato- v. oblanceolato-ellipticis, breviter apiculatis, basi cuneatis, utrinque 
tomentello-pubescentibus, supra glabrescentibus; racemis folio brevioribus, sericeis; 
bracteis brevissimis, ovatis, bracteolis medio pedicelli insertis, obovatis v. late ellip- 
ticis, bractea majoribus ; calyce 10-glanduloso, sericeo ; samara? alis lateralibus a 
basi divaricatis, coriaceis, nervosis, glabris, rubescentibus, obtusis, integris v. in- 
terdum insequaliter dentatis. 


Polia 2J-3 poll, longa, 1^-1^ poll, lata : petiolus J-J poll, longus. Bracteola? gemi- 
nate, rb— i poll, longa?. Samara alis longioribus | poll, longis. 

211. Ravenia ruellioides, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XXXVIII. A. figs. 1-6) ; ramulis 
appresse pubescentibus ; foliis unifoliolatis, petiolatis, ovalibus, utrinque attenuatis v. 
basi obtusis, apice obtusiusculis, nervo medio utrinque cum petiolo appresse pubes- 
cente ; pedunculis inaxillis superioribus 2-vel 1-floris ; sepalis 2 exterioribus majoribus, 
ovatis v. oblongo-ovatis ; petalis longe coalitis, tubo corolla? calyce 1-5-plo longiore, 
leviter curvato ; lobis ovatis lanceolatisve ; antberis 2 fertilibus, basi appendiculatis. 
Roraima, upper slope. 

Polia 1|-2| poll, longa, 5-12 lin. lata ; nervis subtus obliquis, prominulis ; petiolo 2- 
3 lin. longo. Plores 1-1^ poll, longi ; corolla sericea. Calyx sepalis exterioribus -5-J 
poll. longis. Antherse appendicibus brevibus, reflexis, obtusis, obovatis v. truncatis. 

Closely simulating some Acanthacea, with its opposite, simple (unifoliolate) leaves, and 
long curved corolla-tube, sheathed at the base by the unequal sepals. The reflexed, some- 
what fleshy appendage at the base of the perfect anthers has not, I believe, been observed 
in the two other described species of the genus. 


15. Fruiting specimen, leafless, of a Pcecilandra ?, and flowering specimen of Gomphia 
guyanensis ( Ouratea, Aubl.) ? Arapoo R. 

75. Ilex Macotjcotja, Tims, forma ? 3500 ft. 
107, 331. Ilex retusa, Kl. 5400 ft. and ledge. 

35. Cyrilla, Michx. Arapoo R. 
331. Cyrilla antillaxa, var. brevifolia. Top. 

21. Rhynciiosia Schomburgkii, Benth. Arapoo R. 

67. Swartzia, sp. nov. 5000 ft. 

73. Dipteryx reticulata, Benth. ? (type is too imperfect to be quite sure). Kooke- 
naam R. 

71. Cassia Roraijle, Benth. Arapoo 11. 
39. Dimorphandra macrostachya, Benth. Arapoo valley. 
100. Rubus guyanensis, Focke (ex descr.). "_E. Schomburgkii, Klotzsch." Base of 

241, 321. Weinmannia glabra, L.f., var. ? near W. humilis, Engl., but with longer 

pedicels. Ledge and top. 
327. Weinmannia guianensis, Klotzsch. Top. 
313. Drosera communis, A. St.-Hil. var. ? Top. 

32-1. Myrtus stenophylla, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XXXIX. A. figs. 1-9) ; ramosissima, 

ramulis ultimis gracilibus papilloso-scabridis, foliis patenti-recurvis anguste ovalibus 
v. lineari-oblongis acutiusculis basi in petiolum angustatis glabris, pedunculis 
folio brevioribus unifloris axillaribus recurvis apice bibracteolatis, bracteolis 
linearibus calycis tubo obovoideo obsolete puberulo longioribus, lobis calycis 
oblongo-lanceolatis obtusiusculis tubo subaequalibus petalis dimidio brevioribus, 
ovario 3-loculari, ovula in loculis plurima, bacca subglobosa, seminibus reniforiuibus. 

Fall on ledge of Roraima, 7500 ft. 

Folia circ. ^ poll, longa, §— § lin. lata ; petiolus 1 lin. longus. 

189. Myrtus, sp. nov., aff. 31. myricoidi, H. B. K. Top and upper slope. 

74. Myrcia (Aulomyrcia) Roraima, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XXXVIII. B. figs. 7-13) ; 
ramulis teretibus pilosulo-puberulis glabrescentibus cineraceis, foliis pallidis 
obovato-ellipticis v. late oblanceolatis obtusis basi cuneatis subtus in nervo 
obsolete pilosulo, supra demum nitentibus, paniculis pedunculatis axillaribus et 
subterminalibus, pedunculis pauce pilosulis folio brevioribus v. subsequilongis, 
floribus breviter pedicellatis, pedicellis pubescentibus calycis tubo turbinato glabro 
saepius brevioribus, lobis calycinis brevibus late rotundatis. 

Roraima, 3500 ft. 

Folia 1-1 J poll, longa, J— § poll, lata, vernatione supra parce pilosula ; petiolus 1^-2 
lin. longus. Paniculfe cymosae 1^-2 poll, longse. 

82. Myrcia aff. M. KegeHance, Berg. 3500 ft. 

68. Marcetia taxifolia, DC. (ex Tr.), an M. cordigera, DC. ? Folia ovata basi cordata, 
marginibus late recurvis. 5400 ft. 



174. Meissneria microlicioides, NaucL, 31. cordifolia, Benth., 5400 ft. 

239. Microlicia bryanthoides, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XXXIX. B. figs. 10-18) ; fruti- 
culosa ut videtur fastigiatim ramosa, glabra, ramulis ultimis foliiferis acute tetragonis 
internodiis folio 3-6-plo brevioribus, foliis patulis lineari- vel oblongo-ovalibus 
obtusiusculis brevissirne petiolatis, floribus solitariis breviter pedicellatis ad apices 
ramulorum 5-roeris, lobis calycinia ovato-lanceolatis tubo fere requilongis persis- 
tentibus, antheris majoribus connectivo producto subaequilongis. 
Boraima, ledge 6500 ft. 
Folia \~. I poll, longa, yV P°N- l ata - Flores J-f poll. diam. Capsula calyce persis- 

tente vestita f poll, longa, lobis calycis (temp, fruct.) erectis deltoideo-subulatis rigidis. 

59. Pterolepis lasiophylla, Tr. 

20. Pleroma tibottchinum, Tr. (Tibonchina aspera, Aubl.). Arapoo B. 
319. Marcetia jttniperina, DC. Top. 

89. Centronia crassiramis, Tr. 5750 ft. 
216, 305. MonocHxETUM Bonplandii ?, Naud. Upper slope and top. 
277. Oxtmeris aff. 0. glanduliferce, Tr. (Facies 3Iiconice pauperulce, Naud. ?) Path to 
upper savannah. 
Closely resembles the above Miconia, but our specimen is not good. 
256. Miconia Fothergilla, Naud. House. 
223. Miconia, sp. (inadequate). Path. 
30, 70. Miconia decussata, Don. Arapoo B. 
222. Meriania? aff. 31. sclerophijllce, Tr. (Imperfect.) Forest slope, 6000 ft. 

2. Cuphea gracilis, H. B. K., var. media. 

4. Passiflora foztida, L., var. Konkarmo. 

84. Passiflora, sp., e sect. Murucuice (ut videtur). Folia petiolata, petiolis pollicaribus 
apice utroque latere glandula majuscula circulari prseditis, laminis 4|-5 poll, long., 
2^ poll, lat., glabris subtus glaucescentibus subcoriaceis late ovato-oblongis acutis 

basi rotundatis, raro arcuatim nervosis Pedunculi foliis subsequilongi 

apice racemosi Alabastra cylindrato-oblonga acutiuscula. Floris tubus elon- 

gatus, obconicus. Sepala petalaque, ut videtur, brevia oblonga obtusa vel rotundata. 
Corona faucialis e ligulis petaloideis brevibus constaus . . . Gynandrophorum gracile 
.... caet. desunt. — 31. T. Masters. 

110. Passiflora, sp., e sect, Astropliece ? Fruticosa cirrosa, Folia breve petiolata, 

petiolis sub | poll, long., laminis 2| poll, long., H poll, lat., coriaceis glabris 

raro arcuatim venosis oblongis basi apiceque rotundatis. . . . Cirri simplices. . . . 

Bractese Alabastra oblonga obtusa. Floris tubus brevis tubulato-campanulatus 

basi baud intrusus. Sepala 5-6 lin. longa oblonga obtusa navicularia extus tomen- 
tosa intus maculis linearibus purpureis verrucisque albidis notatis. Petala sepalis 
conformia parum breviora tenuiora, membranacea, albida maculis purpureis minimis 


crebris obsita. Corona f'aucialis biserialis, seizes extirua e liyulis petalia sequi- 
longis potaloideis, purpureo-maculatis, dolabriformibus, a pice obliquis et in acumen 
longiuseulum tortum prolatis, series intima e filis numerosis prsecedentibus dimidio 
brevioribus, capitatellatis. Corona mediana e tubo versus medium assurgens basi 
membranacea, apiee in iila brevia divisa. Corona infra mediana e tubo versus 
basin emergens annularis, subcarnosa margine defiexa. Tubi i'acies interna, inter 
coronas, processubus parvis raembranaceis ut videtur dense obsita. . . . ctet. desunt. 
Gynandropborum basi ut videtur quinquangulum, angulis anguste alatis, supra 
medium tumidum ibique puberulum. Antberae oblongse obtusaj flavidoe. Ovarium 
ut videtur oblongum angulatum longitudinaliter costatum puberulum. Stigmata 
majuscula reniformia. — M. T. Masters. 

141. Begonia tovarensis, Klotzscb, var. ? ; fructibus breviter alatis. ITouse. 

ARALIACEiE. By M. E. Marcual. 

Crepinella, nov. gen. Flores hermapbroditi. Calycis margo brevis obsolete 4-dentatus. 

Petala 4 valvata. Stamina tot quot petala, sub disco epigyno explanato superne in 

stylum sulcatum abeunte inserta, filamentis brevibus et antberis ovatis. Ovarium 

1-loculare, 1-ovulatum, ovulo pedulo. Fructus ignotus. 

Frutex (?) glaber. Folia digitata. Flores in umbellas compositas terminales digesti. 

Bractese parvae squamiformes. Pedicelli sub flore continui. 

Notwithstanding tbe absence of fruit, tbe genus Crepinella is very different from otber 
Araliacea? witb 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovary, differing from Eremopanax, Baillon, Ciiphocarpus, 
Decne. & Naud., and Mastixia, Blume, in its digitate leaves and umbellate tetramerous 

Dedicated to Mons. Crepin, Director of tbe Botanic Gardens, Brussels. 

162. Crepixella gracilis, Marcb., n. sp. (Plate XL. figs. 1-6) ; foliis 5-natis, petioln 
sulcato basi abrupte dilatato, foliolis breviter petiolulatis, ovato-ellipticis, apice 
obtusis vel marginatis, basi acutiusculis, margine integerrimis sive revolutis, perga- 
maceis, costa infra pi'ominente, umbellulis longiuscule pedunculatis, 8-12-fioris, 
pedunculo gracili profunde sulcato superne incrassato ; floribus minutis pedicello basi 
bracteolato 4-plo brevioribus, calycis tubo obconico, 8-sulcato, corolla bemispba3i'ica 
acutiuscula sulcata, petalis ellipticis, apice levitcr incrassatis incurvis, nervia extus 

impressa notatis, stylo gracili latitudiuem disci vix a3quante, fructu 


Rami supremi graciles. Petiolus communis circ. 5 cm. longus. Petioluli 6-10 mill. 

longi. Foliola 4-5 cm. longa atque 3 cm. lata. Pedicelli 5-7 mill, longi. 

128. Sciadophyli/um coriaceum, Marcb., nov. sp. (Plate XLT. figs. 1-8) ; infiorescentiis 
foliisque subtus tomcnto adpresso subferrugineo demum bine inde deterso vestitis, 



foliis digitatis, 5-7-natis, foliolis ellipticis, apice rotunclatis v. ssepius leviter emar- 
ginatis basi acutiusculis inargme integerrimis anguste revolutis crassiusculis coriaceis, 
supra denudatis, reticulo nervorum densiusculo infra valde prominente, floribus in 
umbellas duas compositas superpositasque digestis, unibellulis numerosis, 9-12-floris, 
pedunculo compresso elongato superne dilatato, radiis nliformibus basi bracteolatis, 
calycis limbo minute 5-dentato, corolla bemispbaerica acutiuscula, petalis apice 
cohasrentibus demum a basi secedentibus, staminum filamentis brevibus, stylis in 
unum sulcatum 5-fidutn latitudinem disci epigyni vix sequantern concretis f ructu. . . . 


Allied to Sciadophyllum japurense, Mart, et Zucc, but differing in leaves, inflorescence, 
and style. 

Arbor. Rami supremi 2 cm. crassi. Petiolus communis 20 cm. longus. Petioli 2-4 cm. 
longi. Poliola 11-13 cm. longa atque 4-5 cm. lata. Pedicelli 5-8 mill, longi. 

220. Viburnum glabratum, H. B. K. Base of cliff. 

134. Coccocypselum canescens, Willd., var. House. 

6. Kotchub;ea (Synisoon Schomburgkianum, Baill.). Aroie Creek. 
69. Declieuxia chiococcoides, H. B. K. House. 
29. Sipanea pratensis, Aubl. Arapoo R. 

135. Cephaelis axillaris ?, Sw. House ; upper slope. 

83. Psychotria inundata, Bentb. 3500 ft. Upper slope. 
145, 232. Psychotria crassa, Bentb. ? House. Upper slope. 
185. Psychotria, sp. ( = Scbombk. 1018 B and Appun. 1103). Upper slope. 

163, 320. Psychotria Imthurniana, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XLII. A. figs. 1-7.) Glaber- 
rima ; ramulis gracilibus internodiis rectis subteretibus, foliis subsessilibus anguste vel 
lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis basi obtusissimis subeordatisve, costa proininula, 
nervis secundariis utrinque circ. 10-15 incurvis prominulis nervum marginalem attin- 
gentibus cum venulis intermediis, stipulis basi connatis deltoideo-subulatis brevibus, 
cymis terminalibus pedunculatis 9-15-fioris laxiusculis bracteis obsoletis, calycis 
limbo 4-dentato dentibus deltoideis, corollaa tubo cyliudrico limbo 2-plo longiore. 
Roraima, upper slope and ledge, 7000 ft. 
Polia tenuiter eoriacea flavescentia, lf-2J poll, longa, J-f poll. lata. Plores 2-2J lin. 

longi ; corollas limbus 2-2| lin. diam., lobis ovatis obtusis, tubo intus piloso. Ovarium 


191, 214. Psychotria, sp. (Imperfect.) Upper slope and path. 
291. Psychotria ? sp. Path to upper savannah. 

Psychotria concinna, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XLII. B. figs. 8-15.) Glaberrima, 
ramulis gracilibus atro-purpureis, foliis petiolatis parvis coriaceis ovalibus acutis v. 
acutiusculis, supra costa subprominula nervis lateralibus obsoletis, subtus costa pro- 
minente nervis secundariis utroque latere 7-10 prominulis patentim curvatis nervum 


marginalem attiugentibus, stipulis libcris (utrinquc geniinatis) e basi crassiuscula 
erectis subulatis rigidiusoulis, floribus in eymis paucifloris parvis breviter peduncu- 

latis terminalibus dispositis, pedicellis brevissimis, calycis lobis minutis ovatis, 
corolla) tubo recto gracili glabro iutus medium versus pilosulo supenie leviter 
dilatato, lobis brevibus ovatis. 

Iloraima, ledge 6500 ft. and summit. 

Folia 7-12 lin. longa, |-^ poll, lata ; petiolus 1-li lin. longus. Cymse 5-8-florae. 
Corolla 6-7 lin. longa (lobi 1 lin.). 

66. Palicourea riparia ?, Bentb., forma angustifolia. 
85. Palicourea riglda, Kuntb. 

90. Relbunium ( = Schombk. 646, 984 (3). 5400 ft. 


No label. Eupatoritth, sp. ? (not identified). 
95. Eupatoritjm conyzoides, Vabl, var. 5400 ft. 

91. Mikania pannosa, Baker. 5400 ft. 

16. Pectis elongata, H. B. K. AVai-ireng P. 

241, 325. Bacciiaris Vitis-Idea, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XLIII. A. figs. 1-8) ; ramulis 
ultimis puberulis, foliis orebris tenuiter coriaceis oblanceolatis obtusis apice 1-3-5- 
mucronatis in petiolum basi cuneatim angustatis glabris, capitulis campanulato- 
bemispbasricis 15-20-floris in corymbis terminalibus ssepius sessilibus dispositis, 
involucri bracteis paueiseriatis, interioribus (in cap. 2 ) scariosis anguste lineari- 
oblongis deciduis, pappo albido. 
Poraima, ledge 7300 ft. and summit. 

Folia |— 1 poll, longa, 3-4J liu. lata. Capitula 4-i poll. diam. ; bracteis exterioribus 
ovatis v. ovato-lanceolatis plus minus scariosis margine apicem versus sgepe denticulatis 
v. minute fimbriatis (in invol. d ut videtur obtusioribus). Acba^nia lineam longa 
angulata glabrata ; pappus acha3nio longior, setis circ. 30 minute barbellatis. 
Resembles some forms of B. ligustrina, DC. 

328. Baccharis aff. B. cassinicefolia, DC, an var. ? 


250. Gxaphalium spicatum, Lam. 5400 ft. 
86. Verbesina guianensis, Baker. 5400 ft. 

27. Calea ternifolia, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XLIII. B. figs. 9-16.) Suffrutex scaber, 
foliis ternatis ellipticis v. ovato- v. obovato-lanceolatis breviter petiolatis late acutatis 
utrinque apicem versus 1-3-dentatis supra scabris subtus pra3cipue in costa nervisque 
setulosis, capitulis circ. 30-floris bomogamis pedunculatis ad apices ramuloruin 
umbcllatim dispositis, involucri squamis exterioribvis berbaceis ovatis v. ovato- 
oblongis capitula brevioribus, squamis interioribus rigidiusculis late oblongis obtusis 
striatis, paleis concavis obtusis superne leviter dilatatis, ovariis parce setulosis paleis 
pappi acuminato-subulatis brevioribus. 


Arapoo River. 

Folia rigida f-lf poll, longa, 5-8 lin. lata ; petiolus ad 1 lin. longus. Umbellse 3-5- 
cephalae, pedunculis hispidulis capitulis ssepe paullo longioribus. Capitula late cam- 
panulata f poll, longa atque lata. 

247. Erechthites hleraciifolia, Raf. 5400 ft. 

10. Stifftia condensata, Baker. Near Waetipoo M. 
314, 346. Centropogon l^evigatus, A. DC, var. ? Ledge 5400 ft. 

77. C. surinamensis, Presl ? 3500 ft. 

56. Psammisia ? sp. (inadequate). 5400 ft. 

49. Psammisia, with glabrous smooth purple-brown stem, ovate-oblong, shortly apiculate 
quintuplinerved leaves of 4 to 6 in., and contracted umbelliform racemes of flowers 
1 in. in length on pedicels of ^-f in. This is probably Schomburgk's nos. 670, 974, 
of which corollas are wanting in our example. "Whether it be Klotzsch's P. guya- 
nensis I cannot say. 
Roraima, upper slope. 

Under the same no. is apparently another Psammisia in early bud, with more broadly 
elliptical leaves and acute calyx-segments. 

109. Notopora Schomburgkii, Hook. f. 5400 ft. 

243. Sophoclesia aff. S. sabscandenti (ovario glabro). Ledge 7300 ft. 

329. (333?). Vaccinium, an V. floribundum, H. B. K. ? (V. poly stachy urn, Benth.). 

Top and ledge. 
326 365. Vaccinium, an V. floribundum, H. B. K., var.? Top. 

308. Ledothamnus guyanensis, Meissner in Mart. Fl. Bras. vii. 172. (Plate XLIV. A. 
figs. 1-6.) 172. Var. minor ; foliis minoribus imbricatis acutis ciliolatis, fioribus 
sessilibus v. subsessilibus, filamentis anthera 3-5-plo longioribus. 
Roraima, upper part of ledge and summit. 

Possibly a distinct species, but, as our Schomburgk specimens are more advanced and 
scarcely in a comparable state, it is better left as above for the present. The leaves are 
only about 2^ lines long (in the type 4 lines), minutely setulose-ciliolate. Flowers 1 to 
lj in. in diameter, of vivid crimson. In our type the flowers are on pedicels, of | to 1 in. r 
but these may perhaps elongate after flowering. 

Label missing. Befaria guianensis, Klotzsch. 

310. Befaria aff. B. resinosce, Mutis (sepalis obtusioribus). (2 forms.) Top. 
With no. 333. Pernettya, near P. parvifolia, Benth., and allies (in fruit). 
103. Gaultheria cordifolia, H. B. K. 5400 ft. 
332. Gaultheria aff. G. vestitce, Benth. (pedicellis longioribus). Top. 
137. Lucuma rigida, Mart. & Eichl. 5400 ft. 
108. Grammadenia lineata, Benth. 5400 ft. 
36. Ditassa taxifolia, Decne. Arapoo R. 


155. Vincetoxicum (Ortiiosia) hirtellum, Oliv., sp. nov. ; volubile, caulc gracili pilis 
brevibus subpatentibus liirto, foliis ovali-oblongis rigidiuseule apieulatis, marginibus 
revolutis, supra hirtellis in sicco rugulosis, subtus prsecipue in costa pilis patentibus 
birtis, cymis scssilibus v. brevissime pedunculatis pauci- v. pluri-iloris foliis brevi- 
oribus, floribns subsessilibus v. pedicello calyce vix longiore, corolla? lobis angustis 
intus hirsutis, coronse segmentis 5 basi in annulo brevissimo continuo insertis 
lineari-lanceolatis gynostegium fere sequantibus, stigmate obtuso. 


Folia §— | poll, longa ; petiolus -^ poll, longus v. brevior. Flores £ poll, longi 

Very much resembles in general facies Ditassa pauciflora. 

147. Nephradenia linearis, Bentb. ? 
113. Curtia (Sclmebleria tenuifolia, Don). 5100 ft. 
47. Lisianthus AMffiNUS, Miq. 5400 ft. 

306. Lisianthus Imthurnianus, Oliv., sp. nov. Gracilis, glaberrirnus, caule inferne 
folioso tcretiusculo internodiis folio brevioribus utrinque lineis elevatis duabus 
notatis, foliis coriaceis obovatis ellipticisve obtusis v. obtusiusoulis niargine anguste 
revolutis triplinerviis, pedunculoelongato cymis 3-2-floris, floribus longe pedunculatis, 
calyce (j-§ poll, longo) 5-fido, lobis ovato-lanceolatis acutiusculis, corollas (2-poll.) 
tubo leviter dilatato, limbi lobis oblongo-ovatis acutis, filamentis elongatis gracilibus 
glabris inclusis, antheris oblongo-ellipsoideis inappendiculatis. 
Roraima, ledge and summit. 

Caulis 1-pedalis erectus v. basi decumbens. Folia §-f poll, longa, basi in petiolum 
angustata, J~§ poll. lata. Pedunculus communis 3-6 poll, longus ; bractese superiores 
lineares v. ovales. Discus hypogynus. 

In our specimens tbe limb of the corolla looks as though it might remain straight or 
even slightly incurved in flower. 

188. Lisianthus aff. L. macmntho, sed calycis lobis acuminatis corollas tubum requan- 
tibus. Upper slope. 
3. Heliotropium aff. H. fruticoso, conf. H. strlctissinium = &c\\omh\i. 185, 2S3, and 
573. Konkarmo. 
24. Solanum, an S. Convolvulus, Seudtn. ? (inadequate). Arapoo R. 

210. Melasma ? spathaceum, Oliv., sp. uov. ; scabrum, foliis snboppositis v. inferioribus 
alternis brevissime petiolatis ovato-ellipticis basi rotundatis v. leviter cordatis 
dentatis supra scabris, floribus pedunculatis in axillis superioribus pedunculis folio 
suboequilongis apice bibracteolatis, bracteolis linearibus v. oblanceolatis basi 
angustatis, calyce alabastro acuminato florifero antice fisso spathaceo, corolla exserta 
leviter incurva tubo supcime leviter dilatato, limbi brevis lobis subasqualibus, lobo 
postico truncato emarginato, latcralibus obtusissimis, antico obovato-rotundato 
Roraima, upper slope. 


Hamuli retrorsurn hispiduli. Folia (exsicc. nigrescentia) f-lj poll, loiiga, 4-7 lin. 
lata. Calyx 5-nervius, alabastro oblongo-ellipsoideus apice acuminatus, parce, pnecipue 
in nervis, scabridus, 10-12 lin. longus. Corolla 1J poll, longa. Stamina inclusa 
didynama ; filamenta glabra ; antherae sagittatoe glabrae dorsifixa3, loculis aequalibus basi 
apiculatis. Ovarium glabrum. 

I have bad too imperfect material to determine finally if this plant should be left in 
Melasma, or regarded as the type of a new genus. There are no ripe fruits, and I should 
like to be more confident about the form of the corolla-lobes and their aestivation. 

129. Beyrichia ocymoides, Cham. Circ. 5400 ft. 
43. Utricularia Humboldtii, Schombk. 5400 ft. 

187. Utricularia (§ Orchidioides) Campbellianum, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XLIV. 13. 
figs. 7-11) ; scapo gracili (l^-2^rpollicari) unifloro siepius squamis linearibus v. 
lineari-lanceolatis remotis bracteiformibus instructo, foliis tenuibus obovatis obtusis 
basi in petiolum angustatis, bracteis ternis ovatis v. oblongo-ellipticis pedicello 
brevioribus v. aequilongis, calycis lobis ovato-cordatis ol)tusis, corolla3 labio superioi'e 
brevi calycem vix superante, labio inferiore amplo rotundato integro, calcari gracili 
cylindrico acutato incurvo labium corollae aequante. 

Roraima (Schombtirgk), upper slope. 

Folia cum petiolo \ poll, longa, lamina \-\ poll. lata. Calyx lobis 4-5 lin. longis 
latisque. Corolla labio inferiore 1 poll. lato. 

293. Utricularia aff. U. montance, Jacq. (V. nniflora, Ruiz & Pav.). Top. 

78. Utricularia, an temtifolia, Benj. ? 3500 ft. 
287. Gesneracea? In fruit only. Path to upper savannah. 

64. Tabebuia Roraim^e, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XLV. figs. 1, 2) ; ramulis ultimis 
puberulo- vel scabrido-lepidotis, foliis trifoliolatis foliolis oblongo-ellipticis obtusis 
ssepe mucronulatis, lateralibus breviter petiolulatis, supra glabrata subtus cano- 
lepidotis nervis conspicuis depresso-areolatis, racemis terminalibus pauci- v. plurifioris, 
bracteis lineari-spathulatis scaberulis, pedicellis erectis bibracteolatis calyce 
iufundibuliformi lepidoto-puberulo, lobis breviter ovato-rotundatis, corollas tubo 
calyce triplo longiore infundibidiformi, limbi lobis patulis late rotundatis. 
Roraima, 5000 ft. 

Folia petiolata ; petiolus (in ramulis floriferis) 1-1^ poll, longus; foliola 2-3| poll, 
longa, 10-16 lin. lata ; petiolulus centr. j-^ poll, longus. Flores 3|-4 poll, longi, limbo 
2^-3 poll. lato. 

14. Aphelandra pulcherrima ?, Kunth, v. A. tetragona, Nees. Ireng R. 
81. Justicia, sp.,=Appun, 1387 (in part.). Kookenaam valley. 


1. Stachytarpheta mutabilis, Vahl. Konkarmo. 
38. Hyptis arborka, Benth. Aiapoo R. 


98, 249. HYPTIS LANTANiEFOLIA, Poit. 5100 ft. 

111. Coccoloba Scuomburgkii, Meiss. 5400 ft. 

139. Peperomia, not identified ; material scarcely adequate. 5400 ft. 

140, 19G. PEPEBOMIA, an P. lenella, Dietr. ? 5400 ft., and upper slope. 
224. Peperomia reflexa, Dietr. Upper slope. 

219, 236. Hedyosmttm brasiliense, Mart. ? Upper slope. 

323. Phoradendron RoRAiMiE, Oliv., sp. nov. Plavcscens, ramulis tcretibus infra 
nodos intordum compressis crassitie pennse corvime parcc hirtcllis, foliis lineari- 
oblongis v. anguste ovalibus acutiusculis, floribus rnonoicis, spicis 1-articulatis 
5-7-floris, baccis ellipsoideis hevibus ? carnosis. 
Roraima, ledge and summit. 

Polia carnosula moderate coriacea parce pilosula v. glabrata basi in petiolum brevem 
angustata, 5-9 lin. longa, 1-2 lin. lata; internodia A-l poll, longa. Spicte axillares 
solitarias apiculate 1-2 lin. longae ; vagina bracteali leviter biclentata v. subtruncata 
lateraliter compressa. 

Mr. im Tburn's no. 270 (Roraima, patb to upper savannab) may be a glabrate form 
of tbis plant witb rather broader obtuse obscurely mucronulate leaves. 

142. Phyllanthus pycnophyllus, Muell. Arg. Circ. 5400 ft. 
235. Croton, aff. C. surinamensi, Muell. Arg. Forest belt. 

76. Sponia micrantiia, Sw. 3500 ft. 

58. Burmannia bicolor, Mart. 4000 ft. 
121. Dictyostegia orobanchoides, Miers. Upper slope. 

ORCHIDE.E. By H. N. Ridley, Esq., M.A., E.L.S. 

280. Pleurothallis stenopetala, Lindl. Upper slope, Boraima. 
183. Stelis grandiflora, Lindl. Upper slope, Roraima. 

285. Stelis tristyla, Lindl. Upper slope, Roraima. 
127. Lepanthes (inadequate). 5400 ft. (our bouse). 
275. Octomerl\ ? sp. Upper slope. 


279. Masdevallia picturata, Reicbb. f. Upper slope. 

286. Masdevallia brevis, Reichb. f. Upper slope. 

57. Bulbophyllum Geraense, Reicbb. f. (Our bouse, 5400 ft.) 

290. Elleanthus purfuraceus, Reichb. f. Upper slope. 
274. Epidendrum tigrinum, Lindl. Upper slope. 

13. Epidendrum Schomburgkii, Lindl. Treng River. 
42. Epidendrum elongatum, Jacq. (Our house, 5400 ft.) 

296. Epidendrum alsum, Ridley, n. sp. (§ Euepideudra planifolia paniculata.) Caulis 



valiclus, | unciam crassus, rarnosa. Folia coriacea brevia ovata obtusa, 1^ ad f unciam 
longa, f lata, vaginis rugosis vix uncialibus. Panicula abrupte deflexa, ramis duobus 
flexuosis 1 ad 2^ uncias longis. Flores parvi carnosi, 8 in ramo, dissiti. Bracteae 
ovataB cucullatae subobtusae. Sepala lanceolata carinata. Petala angusta lanceolata 
quam sepala diinidio breviora, et paullo tenuiora. Labellum cymbiforme, ovaturn, 
cordatum, carnosum. Columua brevis. 
Top of Koraima. The affinity of this plant is with E. frigidum, Linden. 

299. Epedendrum Imthurnii, Ridley, n. sp. (Plate XLVI. A. figs. 1-6.) Caulis gracilis 
teres parum ramosus ultra 7-uncialis. Folia angusta lineari-lanceolata coriacea cari- 
nata, unciam longa, | unciam lata, vaginis rugosis. Racemi 2 vel 3, defiexi, vix 
unciales, sex-flori. Plores parvi, tenues. Bracteae ovatae, pedicelli f aequantes. Pedi- 
celli -J-unciales. Sepala lanceolata oblonga obtusa curva, circiter •§ unciam longa. 
Petala iinearia angusta uninervia. Labellum ovatum cordatum cymbiforme, basi 
angustatum. Columna gracilis paullo recurva. Anthera pileata subconica obtusa. 
Capsula fusiformis. 
Top of Roraima. 

322. Epedendrum montigena, Ridley, n. sp. Caulis teres gracilis, ultra semipedalis. Folia 
elliptica lanceolata mucronata carinata, unciam longa, | lata, vaginis f-uncialibus 
riigosis. Racemi defiexi multiflori, baud ramosi, circiter 3 uncias longi. Flores parvi, 
tenues. Bracteae ovatse subacutse patentes. Sepala lanceolata, ovata falcata, j unciam 
longa. Petala angustiora lanceolata. Labellum cymbiforme, late cordatum, carnosum. 
Ledge and top. 

51. Epedendrum durum, Lindl. Our house. 

360. Epedendrum vioeascens, Ridley, n. sp. (Plate XLVI. B. figs. 7-10.) Caulis semi- 
pedalis gracilis foliis distichis tectus. Eolia brevia lanceolata crassiuscula recurva, \ 
unciam longa, vaginis superiorum violaceis. Panicula erecta gracilis 5-uncialis, ramis 
paucis tenuibus. Elores pauci perparvi. Bracteae lanceolatae breves recurvse. 
Sepalum posticum lanceolatum obtusum trinerve, lateralia basi connata, et ad basin 
labello adnata, lanceolata obliqua, apicibus excurvis, trinervia. Petala Iinearia 
angusta uninervia. Labellum rotundatum subreniforme, marginibus serrulatis; 
costae tres elevatae, versus apices attenuatae. Columna crassiuscula. 
Top of Roraima. 

304. Epedendrum, sp. Ledge, 7500 ft. 

80. Cattleya Lawrence ana, Reichb. f. Prom the locality given, I believe this 
to be C. pumila, Schomb., Reise Brit. Guian. p. 1068 (non Hooker). There is 
a picture of it among Schomburgk's drawings preserved in the British Museum. 

55. Cyrtopodium parvielorum, Lindl. Roraima, 4000 ft. 

61. Koeelensteinia Kellneriana, Reichb. f. Roraima, 4000 ft. 

50. Zygopetalum Burkei, Reichb. f. Our house. 


360. Zygopetalum venustum, Ridley, n. sp. (Plate XL VII. figs. 1-0.) Planta csespitosa, 
pscudobulbis riullis. Folia bina, evoluta, lancoolata acuta, basi attcnuata, subcoriacea, 
costis tribus clcvatis in dorso, 7 ad 8 uncias longa, § lata. Scapus lateralis ereetus, 
13 uncias longus, vaginis 2-3, apicibus obtusis, aniplexis, paullo ampliatis rcmotis. 
Racemus laxus, 10-florus. Flores mcdiocres, unciam longi et lati. Bracteae 
pedicellis multo breviores, cylindricse, ovataB, acutae, inferiorcs vaginantcs. Pedicelli 
■i unciam longi. Scpala ovata, lanceolata, subacuta patula. Pctala subsimilia, 
obtusioraet angustiora. Labellum integrum, mentum plicatum, lamina rbomboidea, 
obtusa, lata. Columna brevis crassiuscula, alis magnis obtusis falcatulis, apicibus 
cui'vis. Antbera subconica. Stigma semilunare. 
Kookenaam River, 3000 ft. 

There is a figure of what seems to be the same species in the drawings made by 
Schomburgk, preserved in the British Museum. It was obtained at Takootoo, and is 
represented as having white flowers, with the base of the lip and the mentum yellow and 
a few faint purple stains towards the apex of the lip, and purple streaks on the face of 
the column. The fruit is deflexed, oblong in shape. In the absence of a distinct pseudo- 
bulb, this plant differs from the rest of the genus, but the flowers are exactly those of 

114. Oncedium nigratum, Lindl. 5100 ft. (our house). 

12. Oncedium orthostates, Ridley, n. sp. (Plurituberculata Homaeantha expansa.) 
Pseudobulbus oblongus, 2 uncias longus. Folium lanceolatum oblongum, 3 uncias 
longum, 1 unciam latum. Scapus elatus validulus rigidus ultra bipedalis. Bractese 
lanceolatse deflexae breves ^-unciales. Flores mediocres, iis O. ccesli aequantes. Pedicelli 
■| unciam longi. Sepala lanceolata subacuta. Petala subsimilia viridia brunneo macu- 
lata (ex sicco). Labelli lobi laterales spathulati obtusi, medius basi angustatus rotun- 
datus reniformis emarginatus, cuspide minuto. Callus, carina lamellas duas breves 
gerens. Columna brevis stelidiis obtusis magnis dolabriformibus tenuibus. Pedicellus 
polliniorum elongatus ligulatus, discus oblongus quadratus, margine exteriore eroso. 
Treng River ; also 23, Savannah, W. H. Campbell in Herb. Kew. 

19. Sobralla. stenophyela, lindl. Spelinioola, Arapoo River. 
273. Sobralia (inadequate). Upper slope, Roraima. 

115. Pogonia parvifeora, Reichb. f. 5100 ft. (our house). 

312. Spiranthes bifida, Ridley, n. sp. Tubera elongata clavata. Folia ovata petiolata 
acuta tenuia parva, lamina semiunciam longa, \ unciam lata, petiolus vix semi- 
uncialis. Caidis debilis parce pubescens, ferine 10-uncialis ; vaginis circiter 9, laxis 
lanceolatis acuminatis dissitis J unciam longis. Racemus densus spiralis, unciam 
longus. Bracteae flores superantes, lanceolata? acuminatic. Sepala, petala et labellum 
subsimilia, lanceolata angusta obtusa, marginibus involutis, apicibus bifidis, minute 



papillosa. Petala quam sepala angustiora. Columna brevis. Anthera erecta obtuse 
acuta. Ovarium breve minute pubesceus. 
Our bouse, Roraima. 

131. Stenoptera viscosa, Reicbb. f. (Our bouse, 5400 ft.) 

173, Stenoptera adnata, Ridley, n. sp. (Plate XLVIII. A. figs. 1-6.) Tubera plura 
lanata elongata. Folia tenuia meinbranacea lanceolata acuta 3 uncias longa, \ unciam 
lata. Caulis validulus 17-uncialis superne pubescens, vaginis pluribus dissitis lanceo- 
latis acuminatis usque ad basin fissis, longissima 1^-uncialis. Racemus multiflorus 
densus pubescens. Flores parvi resupinati. Bracteae lanceolatse acutse f -unciales fio- 
ribus sequantes. Ovarium breye crassiusculum pubescens. Galea (sepalum posticum 
petalis adnatum) ovata cucullata obtusa, marginibus fimbriatis. Sepala lateralia 
oblonga ovata acuta. Labellum ovatum lanceolatum, lobis lateralibus tenuibus erectis 
vix distinctis, medio linguiformi carnoso, obtuso, supra canaliculato, basi subtus 
pubescenti. Columua elongata gracilis apice clavata, parte inferiore pubescente. 
Upper slope. 

9. Pelexia aphylla, Ridley, n. sp. (Plate XLVIII. B. figs. 7-11.) Tubera desunt. Folia 
radicalia nulla, caulina lanceolata acuminata 6 dissita, superiora latiora. Caulis 
8-uncialis pubescens prsesertim versus basin. Plores pauci, mediocres, albi. Sepa- 
lum posticum petalis adnatum, galeam efformans, lanceolatam acuminatam cucul- 
latam, petala quam sepalum breviora. Sepala lateralia lanceolata linearia porrecta 
marginibus involutis. Labellum cuneatum spatbulatum obtusum minute pubes- 
cens, subemargiuatum lobulo obscuro in medio ; calcar ad ovarium arete adnatum. 
Columna brevissima, rostellum prolongatum oblongum obtusum canaliculatum 
porrectum. Antbera lanceolata obtusa vix biloculata. Pollinia pyriformia bicrura ; 
discus ovalis rotundatus. 
Waetipoo Mountain ; also Serra de Piedade, Minas Geraes, Brazil, Gardner (no. 5193, 

"Flowers wbite," in Herb. Brit. Mus.). 

46. Habenaria parvielora, Lindl. (Our bouse, 5400 ft.) Roraima 251, at 5000 ft. 

367. Habenaria Moritzii, Ridley, n. sp. Caulis \ ad pedalis foliatus. Folia erecta lan- 
ceolata acuta dissita, maxima 2 uncias longa, \ lata. Racemus laxus circiter 15-florus. 
Bracteae lanceolatae acuminata^. Flores parvi. Sepalum posticum erectum, lateralia 
deflexa, ovata, lanceolata, mucronata. Petala bifida, lacinia postica erecta anguste 
Hnearis lanceolata, quam sepalum posticum paullo brevior, antica anguste linearis 
obtusa recurva. Labellum trilobum, lobi laterales filiformes quam medius longiores 
et angustiores. Calcar filiforme clavatum \ unciam longum. Columna majuscula. 
Antbera obtusa, apices breves recti. Lobi stigmatici crassiusculi obtusi breves. 
At 4000 ft., Roraima ; also in Venezuela, Moritz 630 b. 

53. Selenipedittm Lindleyanum, Reicbb. f. (Our bouse, 5400 ft.) Roraima. 
31. Selenipedium Klotzscheanum, Reicbb. f. Colunga River. 


315 or 311 (2 labels). Tillandsia stricta, var. ? 
31 (5. Tillandsia, sp. ? Inadequate. 
45. Puya (probably new). (Inadequate.) > J. G. Baker. 

300. ClPURA PALUDOSA, Alibi. 

298. Nietneria corymbosa, Klotzscb & Schomb. Top. 

297. Toeieldia Sciiomburgkiana, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XLIX. A. figs. 1-0) ; foliis 
elongato-linearibus longe acuminatis minutissime ciliolatis longitudinaliter striatis 
basi disticbe vaginantibus, scapo erecto tcreti glabro foliis longioribus, floribus 
strictis racemosis pedicello erecto suba^quilongis, calyculi bracteolis ovatis acutis 
perianthio 6-plo brevioribus, scgmentis periantbii erectis oblongis acutis valide 
Roraima, 6000 ft., Schomburgk; summit, E. F. im Thurn. 

Folia 3-12 poll, longa, ^-J poll. lata. Scapus J-2 ped. longus, 5-9 (3-co )-florus. 
Flores flavido-virentes semipollicares ; periantbii segmenta temp, florif. acutata persis- 
tentia rigida. Bractese ovato-lanceolatae appressse. 

Nearly allied to T.falcata, Pers. (T.J rigida, H. B. K.), from wbicb it differs in its 
strict inflorescence and longer pedicels and flowers. 

Schomburgk describes the leaves as margined with red. 

257. Xyris Fontanesiana, Kuntb. 5400 ft. 

62. Xyris setigera, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate L. A. figs. 1-8.) Subacaulis, foliis linearibus 
setoso-acuminatis mai-ginibus minutissime setuloso-scabridis, scapo foliis 4-5-plo 
longiore stricto gracillimo subtereti glabro, capitulo ovoideo paucifloro bracteis cori- 
aceis obtusis ovatis v. ovato-ellipticis, staminodiis ad faucem corollse insertis bipartitis 
penicillatis, antheris filamento libero longioribus. 
Eoraima, 4000 ft., E. F. im Thurn. 

Polia 1-2 poll, longa, ^-^ poll. lata. Scapi 5-7 poll, longi, 1 v. 2 ex una radice ; 
vagina carinata angusta foliis paullo longior. Bractese interiores cymbiformes oblongo- 
ellipticae obtusaB v. emarginatse, \ poll, longae. Sepala lateralia linearia complicata 
anguste carinata, carina obsolete denticulata. 

240. Xyris witsenioides, Oliv., sp. nov. (PL L. B. figs. 9-15.) Caulescens, caule decum- 
bente sub scapo ssepius dichotomo, foliis rigidis disticbe arete imbricatis linearibus 
longitudinaliter striatis glabris ad apicem acutissimum gradatim angustatis, basi 
vaginante scariosa spadicea, scapo gracili foliis 3-5-plo longiore, capitulis paucifioris, 
bracteis glabris obtusis v. interioribus majoribus emarginatis, sepalis lateralibus 
incurvis rigidis carinatis carina scabriuscula, staminodiis flabellatim dilatatis longe 
penicillato-plumosis, ovario apice rostrato, rostro persistente. 
Roraima, ledge 7300 ft., E. F. im Thurn. 
Folia 2^ poll, longa, 1 lin. lata, leviter falcatim incurva. Scapus in dichotomiis soli- 

tarius compressiusculus v. subangulatus, 6-9 poll, longus ; vagina foliis brevior. Capi- 

tida ^ poll, longa, bracteis baud arete imbricatis. 


Singular in the JPitsenia-like habit of its stout stems ; in our specimens 3-4 inches 
(ranging to 6-8 inches, E. F. im Thurn) in length, lateral branches being given off 
immediately under the solitary scapes. 

312. Abolboda Sceptrum, Oliv., sp. nov. ; foliis lineari-lanceolatis acutis rigidis lsete 
viridibus leviter glaucescentibus, scapo crassitie penna3 anserinte, floribus capitatis, 
capitulis floriferis 4-5 poll, diam., bracteis ovatis acutis rigidis sepalis ^-f breviori- 
bus, sepalis ovato-lanceolatis subaBquilongis lateralibus carinatis, petalis limbo ovato 
flabellatim venoso, ovario ovoideo, stylo longo basi appendicibus 3 crassiusculis arete 
uncinatis ovario sequilongis circumdato, ovula plurima. 
Roraima, summit, E. F. im Thurn. 

Eolia 6-7 poll, longa. Scapus Bractese ovatse v. interior es ovato-lanceolatae, 

f-1^ poll, longa?. Sepala 1^-lf poll, longa. Petala 2-2J poll, longa, inferne in tubum 
leviter curvatum coalita. Stamina petalis breviora ; filamenta anguste linearia ; antherse 
lineares. Ovarium cartilagineum, \ poll, longum ; stylus If poll, longus. 

The leaves I have not seen, Mr. im Thurn having kindly supplied me with a note of 
their size and form. He describes the foliage as " Yucca-like." Our specimen consists 
of a well-developed capituluni and 8-9 inches of its scape. The flowers hardly admit of 
being satisfactorily analyzed. They are very much larger than in other species seen by 
me, and the tube of the united petals much wider. The singular uncinate appendages 
are inserted with the style upon the ovary, not, as in some species, at a distinct interval 
above it. There is a figure of this remarkable plant in the Schomburgk collection of 
drawings at the British Museum. 


338. Stegolepis gtjianensis, Klotzsch. 6000 ft. 
34. Eriocatjlon Humboldtii, Kunth ? ( = specimen from Roraima, Schomburgk). 

Arapoo R. 
33. Pjepalanthtjs Schombtjrgkii, Klotzsch. Arapoo R. 
60. P^epalanthus elavescens, Koern. {eriocephalus, Klotzsch). 4000 ft. 

294. P-EPALANTHTJS Roraimje, Oliv., sp. nov. (Plate XLIX. B. figs. 7-14.) Acaulis, foliis 
dense rosulatis brevibus rigidis linearibus obtusiusculis basi latioribus leviter falcatis 
rectisve, basi arete imbricata lanuginosa excepta glabra, longitudinaliter striata, 
scapo solitario vaginato, vagina foliis subduplo longiore spathacea v. bifida glabra, 
involuci'i bracteis lineari-lanceolatis glabratis v. parce pilosis, fuliginosis, bracteis 
disci flores stipantibus oblanceolatis v. obovato-cuneatis cymbiformibus. 
Roraima, summit, E. F. im Thurn. 
Eolia f— 1 poll, longa. Scapus glabrescens v. apicem versus obsolete puberulus 3^— 4J 

poll, longus. Capitula hemisphserica \ ])oll. diam. Plores breviter pedicellati. Perian- 

thium segmentis exterioribus liberis obovatis concavis apicem versus coloratis interioribus 

staminigeris subaecmilongis. Ovarium triquetrum. 

264. Anthttrium roraimense, N. E. Brown, sp. nov. ; cataphyllis magnis lanceolatis, 
petiolis teretibus elongatis, lamina cordata subacuminata, lobis posticis semioblongis 


quam antico subtriplo brevioribus sinu parabolico sejunctis, nervis primariis 13, 
venis primariis costa utrinque (5-7, omnibus supra et subtus prominentibus ; 
pedunculo valido tereti; spatba oblongo-lanceolata, filiformi-aeuminata ; spadicc 
stipitato spatba sulxequante valido. 
Ilab. Roraima, Britisb Guiana, E. F. im Thurn. 

Catapbylla minora 3 poll, longa, majora 7-8 poll, longa, 1-1-]- poll. lata. Petiolus 
2 ped. longus. Lamina 20 poll, longa, 12 poll, lata, pergamentacea, rcticulato-venosa, 
nervi intramarginali margiuo valde approximato. Spatba h\ poll, longa, If poll. lata. 
Spadix (cum stipite \ poll, longa) 5 poll, longus, \ poll, crassus. Elores 1 lin. diam., 
stylo conico brevissime exserto. — N. E. Brown. 

382. Geonoma Appuniana, Spr. 
358. Euterpe. 5100 ft. 

CYPERACE^E. By H. N. Ridley, Esq., M.A., E.L.S. 

259. Eihbristylis uispidula, Kuutb. (Our bouse, 5100 ft.) Roraima. 

215. Rhynchospora glauca, Vabl. (Our bouse, 5100 ft.) 

253. Rhynchospora capillacea, Torrey. (Our bouse, 5100 ft.) 

Rhynchospora leptostachya, Boeckl. (Our bouse, 5400 ft.) 
218. Scleria hirtella, Swartz. 
209. Scleria bracteata, Cavanilles. 

357. Cryptangium stellattjm, Boeckeler, s . (Plate LI. figs. 1-6.) Upper slope, 

Tbe male plant of tbis species does not seem to have been hitherto met with or 
described ; I therefore add a description of it. 

Panicula longissima, ramis gracilibus. Spiculse plures, binee, castanese, \ unciam 
longa?. Bractea lanceolata, trinervis, longe mucronata, mucrone ciliato. Glumge vacuse 8, 
floriferae 2. Stamina tria, apiculis longis acuminatis, dimidio antherse aequantibus. 

Everardia, nov. gen. Cryptangiearum. 

Herba perennis, caule valido descendente lignoso. Eolia conferta rigida recurva. Culmus 
paniculatus validus lateralis, ex axilla folii inferioris oriens. Pauicula laxa, rami 
plurimi inferiores masculi, supremi feminei. Spicuhe masculge plm'iflorge, glumis 
vacuis 3, floriferis 6. Stamina plura. Spiculae feniinese parva:, glumis vacuis 1, 
florifera 1. Stylus brevis, stigma bifidum lobis brevibus planis lanceolatis. Ovarium 
triangulatum breviter pedicellatum, cupula nulla. Seta; hypogynoe copiosae tortae. 

335. Everardia Montana, Ridley, n. sp. (Plate LII. figs. 1-8.) Caulis brevis, vaginis 
latis decompositis superne tectus. Eolia lineari-lanceolata acuta acuminata carinata 
recurva, marginibus albo-ciliatis, longissima 7 uncias longa, \ unciam lata. Culmus 
11 uncias longus, validus, compressus, anceps, pro maxima parte paniculata, cfoliata, 
vaginis paucis brunneis fissis compressis, saepius lamina parva lanceolata obtusa 


rigida. Spiculae masculse singular, copiosse, § unciam longoe, castanese, inferiores pedun- 
culatse. Gluinse 3 vacuse, staminiferae 6, lanceolatae aristatae, marginibus parce ciliatis, 
arista brevis crassiuscula. Stamina in flore circiter 6. Anthera acuminata fila- 
mento aequalis, \ unciam longa, apiculus brevissimus, tricbomatum fasciculo terminali 
brevi. Spiculae feminese parvae angustse. Glumae vacuae 4, suprema fertilis, exteriores 
cartilagineae lanceolatae brevi-aristatae, castanese, interiores scariosse, carina violacea. 
Stylus stigmati aequalis, teres, crassiusculus brevis. Stigma breviter bifidum lobis 
lanceolatis obtusis planis, violaceis. Ovarium ellipticum oblongum obtuse trique- 
trum breviter pedicellatum, pedicello subtereti. Seta? hypogynae, copiosae, tortae. 
Pistillum ^-unciale ; caryopsis fere ^ unciam longa. 
Ledge, Roraima. 

Tbis genus is most nearly allied to Lagenocar+ms, but differs entirely from that genus, 
and from the rest of the Cryptcmgieai, in the lateral inflorescence, the bifid stigma, with 
short flat lobes, the absence of any cupule, and the presence of a large number of hypo- 
gynous bristles. 

262. Paspaltjm stellatum, Fliigge, var. ? 

261. Panictjm nervosum, Lam. ? 5400 ft. 

254. Arundinella brasiliensis, Eaddi. 5400 ft. 

154. Echinol^na scabra, H. B. K. 5400 ft. 

246. Saccharum (§ Eriochrysis) catennensis, Beauv. 5400 ft. 

260. Isch^mum latifolium, Kuntb. 5400 ft. 

359. ? GtiADUA (barren). 5400 ft. 

18. ? Chusquea (barren). Arapoo B,. 
302. Gram. dub. (barren). Top. 

FEBNS. By J. G. Baker, E.R.S., F.L.S. 

The following is a complete list of the Ferns collected. The numbers are Mr. im 
Thurn's collecting-numbers. Those enclosed within brackets indicate the position of 
the new species in the sequence followed in our ' Synopsis Filicum.' In determining the 
species I have had the kind help of Mr. Jenman, the government botanist of the colony, 
who has paid special attention to Ferns ever since he has lived in Demerara. 

343. Gleichenia pubescens, H. B. K., var. (G. longipinnata, Hook.). Upper slopes of 

the mountain. 
92. Cyathea vestita, Mart. In the neighbourhood of the encampment. 
270. Alsophila bipinnatifeda, Baker. With a slender caudex 6 or 7 feet in length, in 

the neighbourhood of the encanipmeut. 

87 (16*). Alsophila macrosora, Baker, n. sp. ; stipitibus basi paleis linearibus brunneis 
imbricatis dense vestitis, frondibus amplis deltoideis tripinnatifidis crassiusculis 


praeter venas primarias faciei superioris glabris, pinnis oblongo-lanceolatis, pinnulis 

lauccolatis inferioribus distincte petiolatis basi truncatis ad costam alatani pinna- 

tilidis, segmentis tertiariis oblongis crcuulatis, venis simplicibus erecto-patentibus 

6-6-jugis, soris magais globosis superficialibus intramarginalibus, receptacvilis dense 


Basal paleae extending 4-5 inches up the stipe, glossy, moderately firm in texture, the 

largest •£ in. long. Stipe a foot long, brownish, deeply grooved down the face. Lower 

pinnae 15-18 in. long, 8-9 in. broad. Lower pinnules 1 in. long f in. broad, with a 

petiole ^ in. long, which is articulated at the base. Tertiary segments £ in. broad. 

Allied to the Bahian A. prcec'mcta, from which it differs by its more coriaceous texture, 
crowded sori, and densely paraphysate receptacle. 

37. Alsophila villosa, Presl. 

318 (1G*). Hymenophyllum dejectum, n. sp. ; stipitibus productis paleis pallidis ascen- 
dentibus lanceolatis praeditis, frondibus oblongo-lanceolatis tripinnatifidis erectis 
glabris, pinnis lanceolatis confertis decurvatis pinnulis, superioribus simplicibus infe- 
rioribus profunde pinnatifidis, segmeutis ultimis linearibus integris uninervatis, soris 
breviter pedicellatis ad basin segmentorum ultimorum impositis, involucro campa- 
nulato valvis argute serratis. 
Rootstock not seen. Stipes 2-3 in. long, clothed with minute inconspicuous pale 

membranous paleae, as is also the rhachis. Lamina 4-5 in. long, |— 1 in. broad. Pinna? 

decurved, not more than J— | in. long. Final segments tV - 1j m - long, not more than 

^ line broad. Involucre \ line broad. 

A very distinct novelty. Allied to //. demissum and H. javanicum. 

118. 199, 371. ITymenophyllum polyanthos, Sw. Upper slope of the mountain. 

207, 302, 370, 372, 373. Hymenophyllum microcarpum, ITook. Upper slope of the 

mountain. This is evidently not more than a variety of H. polyanthos. 
205. Hymenophyllum cbjspum, H. B. K. Upper slope of the mountain. 
203, 375. Hymenophyllum lineare, Sw. Upper slope of the mountain ; and 200, var. 

antillense, Jenman. 
292. Hymenophyllum eucoides, Sw. Upper slopes of the mountain. 
271. Trichomanes macilentum, Van den Bosch. Upper slopes of the mountain. Will 

have, I think, to be regarded as not more than a variety of T. Bcmcroftii, 
198, 201, 349. Trichomanes pyxldiferum, L. Upper slopes of the mountain. 349 

represents the variety T. cavifolium, C. Mull. 
99, 317. Trichomanes crisp um, Sw. The higher number from the upper slopes of the 

mountain, the lower from the neighbourhood of the encampment. 

119. Trichomanes rigidum, Sw. Neighbourhood of the encampment. 

120. Davallia Imrayana, Hook. Upper slopes of the mountain. 
344. Lindsayana guianensis, Dryand. Upper slopes of the mountain. 



149, 150, 301. Lindsay a stricta, Dryand. The two lower numbers gathered near the 

encampment, the other on the mountain-top. 
161, 303. Hypolepis repens, Presl. Base of the cliff. 194, 195 are young forms of 

Hijpolepis, most likely the same species. 
144. Pteris lomariacea, Kunze. Neighbourhood of the encampment. 
160. Pteris incisa, Thunb. Base of the cliff. 

156. Lomaria Pltjmieri, Desv. Upper slopes of the mountain. 

88, 167. Lomaria procera, Spreng. Upper slopes of the mountain and in the neigh- 

bourhood of the encampment. 
48. Lomaria Boryana, Willd. Neighbourhood of the encampment. 

157, 369. Asplenium lunulatum, Sw., var. (A. erectum, Bory). Base of the cliff. 
171. Asplenium rhizophorum, L., var. (A. flabellatum, Kunze). Upper slopes of the 

143. Asplenium furcatum, Thunb. Neighbourhood of the encampment. 
272. Aspidium capense, Willd. Path to the upper savannah. 

275 (4*). Nephrodium (§ Lastrea) brachypodum, n. sp. ; caudice erecto, stipitibus 
brevissimis ca?spitosis pilosis, frondibus parvis lanceolatis firmulis subglabris simpli- 
citer pinnatis e medio ad basin et apicem sensimattenuatis,rhachide piloso paleis paucis 
patulis lanceolatis prsedito, pinnis sessilibus lanceolatis basi utrinque auriculatis 
centralibus profunde serratis reliquis integris infimis deltoideis, venis superioribus 
pinnarum simplicibus erecto-patentibus, inferioribus furcatis vel parce pinnatis, soris 
superflcialibus medialibus, involucro membranaceo subpersistente. 
Frond 5-6 in. long, an inch broad, narrowed very gradually from the middle to both 
ends. Lower pinna? not more than £ in. long. Stipes not above half an inch long. 
Central pinnae J in. broad above the dilated base. 
Upper slopes of the mountain. 

May be an involucrate form of the well-known West-Indian Poly podium hastcefolium, 
Sw., which it resembles very closely in size, shape, texture, and venation. 

94, 380. Nephrodium conterminum, Desv. Upper slopes of the mountain and neigh- 
bourhood of the encampment. 

269. Nephrodium Leprieurii, Hook. Neighbourhood of the encampment. 

126, 169, 225. Nephrodium denticulatum, Hook. Upper slopes of the mountain and 
neighbourhood of the encampment. 

354. Nephrodium amplissimum, Hook. Upper slopes of the mountain. 

102, 339. Nephrolepis cordifolia, Presl. Neighbourhood of the encampment. 

356 (13*). Polypodium (§ Phegopteris) demeraranum, n. sp. ; caudice erecto, stipite 
producto pubescente basi paleis paucis lanceolatis brunneis membranaceis prsedito, 
frondibus oblongo-lanceolatis bipinnatiiidis prsesertini ad venas pilosis, pinnis sessi- 
libus lanceolatis ad costam alatam pinnatitidis inferioribus reductis infimis remotis 
perparvis, pinnulis oblongo-lanceolatis integris obtusis, venulis simplicibus 8-9-jugis 
pilosis, soris superflcialibus parvis supramedialibus. 


Stipes 6-8 in. long below the much-dwarfed lowest pair of pinnae, grey and pubescent, 
as is the rhachis. Largest basal paleae half an inch Long. Lamina H-2 ft. Long, 7-8 in. 
broad at tbc middle. Largest pinnae l-Ah i»- long, about an inch broad. Pinnules 
above J in. broad. 

Closely allied to the Himalayan P. auriculatum, Wall., in size, texture, and cutting, 
but quite different in the position of the sori. Pound on the upper slopes of the moun- 
tain. Gathered previously by Appun, 1138. 

1(58 (15*). Polypodium (§ Phegopteris) roraimense, n.sp. ; caudice erecto, stipitepro- 
ducto glabro stramineo, frondibus ohlongo-lanceolatis bipinnatis prseter costas faciei 
superioris glabris, pinnis sessilibus lanceolatis simpliciter pinnatis inferioribus 
reductis iniimis remotis perparvis, pinnulis oblongo-lanceolatis subintegris ohtusis, 
venulis 7-8-jugis ascendentibus simplicibus, soris globosis superficialibus supra- 
Stipes 3-4 in. long below the dwarfed lowest pinna?. Lamina \\ ft. long, 8-9 in. 

broad at the middle. Largest pinnae 4-4| in. long, about an inch broad. Pinnules 

£ in. broad. 

Closely allied to the preceding and to the West-Indian P. Germanianuin and ctenoides. 

Gathered upon the upper slopes of the mountain. 

177, 182, 282, 307, 31-5, 352, 370. Polypodium margin ellum, Sw. Upper slopes of the 

mountain, in the crevices of rocks. 
184 (ex parte). Polypodium trifurcatum, L. Upper slopes of the mountain, mixed 

with Enterosora Campbellii. 
160, 350, 308, 377- Polypodium furcatum, Mett. Summit and upper slopes of the 

133. Polypodium serrulatum, Mett. The type iu the neighbourhood of the encamp 

ment, and no. 351, var. (Xiphopteris Jamesoni, Hook.), on the upper slopes of the 


178. Polypodium trichomanoides, Sw. Upper slopes of the mountain. 

348. Polypodium truncicola, Klotzsch. Upper slopes of the mountain. New to 

181. Polypodium moniliforme, Lau.. var. (P. saxicolum, Baker). Upper slopes of the 


179. Polypodium tovarense, Klotzsch. Upper slopes of the mountain. 

180 (159*). Polypodium (§ Eupolypodium) Kalbreyeri, n. sp. ; rhizomate breviter 
repente paleis parvis patulis linearibus brunneis vestito, stipitibus contiguis elongatis 
erectisatro-brunneis, frondibus deltoideis simpliciter pinnatis coriaceis glabris, rhachide 
nudo castaueo, pinnis linearibus adnatis contiguis integris superioribus sensim 
minoribus, venis immersis occultis Eurcatis, soris globosis superficialibus latitudinem 
totam. pinnarum inter costam et marginem occupantibus. 
Stipes 8-10 in. long, naked or furnished towards the base with minute, squarrose, soft, 
hair-like paleae. Rhachis castaneous, like the stipe. Lamina 5-0 in. long, 3-3^ in. broad 

2 x 2 


at the base. Pinna? about 20 on a side below the caudate apex of tbe frond, £ in. broad 
at the base, narrowed gradually to an acute point. Sori a line in diameter, 12-16-jugate 
on the lower pinnae. 

Nearest the Andine P. melanopus, Hook. & Grev., from which it differs by its stiffly 
erect stipes, frond broadest at the base, and obscure immersed veins. Found on the 
upper slopes of the mountain, and gathered previously by Kalbreyer on the mountains 
of the province of Ocana, in New Granada, at an elevation of 6500 ft. 

186* (159*). Poltpoditjm Kookenam^:, Jemnan MSS., n. sp. ; rhizotnate valido bre- 

viter repente vel suberecto paleis subulatis castaneis ciliatis dense vestito, stipitibus 

castaneis clongatis parce ciliatis, frondibus oblongo-lanceolatis subcoriaceis glabris 

simpliciter subpinnatis, rhachide primario anguste alato, pinnis lanceolatis acutis inte- 

gris basi confiuentibus, costis immersis, venis furcatis, soris medialibus obscure 


Stipes 6-9 in. long. Lamina 6-8 in. long, 2 in. broad, truncate at the base, dark green 

above, pale beneath. Pinnae 16-20 on a side below the subentire acuminate apex of the 

frond, the largest an inch long, 3-^ in. broad. Primary rhachis purpuraceous on both 

sides of the frond. Sori terminal on the anterior fork of each vein. 

This I have not seen, and insert entirely on Mr. Jenman's authority. I have merely 
altered the form of the description which he has sent, so as to make it uniform with the 
others. It did duty for no. 186 in set C of the distribution. Mr. Jeninan says it is 
intermediate between P. Kalbreyeri and the Jamaican P. bruiineo-viride. 

180, 379. Polypodium taxefolium, Linn. Upper slopes of the mountain. 

104. Polypodium pectixatum, Linn. In the neighbourhood of the encampment. 

124. Polypodium cultratum, Willd. In the neighbourhood of the encampment. 

217. Polypodium xanthotrichium, Klotzsch (P. ellipticosorum, Fee). Upper slopes 

of the mountain. Appears to be distinct specifically from P. cultratum by its 

uniformly elliptical sori. 
281. Polypodium rigescens, Bory. Upper slopes of the mountain. 
176. Polypodium firmum, Klotzsch. Upper slopes of the mountain. 
378. Polypodium subsessile, Baker. Upper slopes of the mountain. 
190. Polypodium capillare, Desv. Upper slopes of the mountain. 

125 (212*). Polypodium (§ Eupolypodium) melanotrichum, n. sp. ; caudice erecto 
paleis subulatis crispatis vestito, stipite brevissimo gracillimo, frondibus oblongo- 
lanceolatis parvis flaccidis membranaceis glabris bipinnatifidis, pinnis lanceolatis 
adnatis profunde pectinato-pinnatifidis inferioribus sensim minoribus, segmentis 
deltoideis acutis, venis brevibus simplicibus erecto-patentibus, soris globosis supex'- 
ficialibus costularibus ad apicem venarum impositis. 
Stipes and rhachis black, thread-like, glabrous. Lamina" 3-4 in. long, an inch broad at 

the middle. Central pinnae half an inch long, -J in. broad, with 6-8 pairs of deltoid 

segments with a single sorus in the centre of each. 


Allied to the Brazilian J?, achilleafolium, Kaulf., but quite different in texture, in the 
shape of the segments, and by its very short simple veins. Pound in the neighbourhood 
of the encampment. 

172. Polypodium (§ Goniophlebium) loriceum, Linn. Base of the great cliff. 

340. Polypodium (§ Pulebodium) auueum, Linn., var. (P. areolatum, II. B. K.). In the 

neighbourhood of the encampment. 
208. Polypodium (§ Campyloneuron) angustieolium, Sw., var. (P. ampuostemon, 

Kunze). In the neighbourhood of the encampment. 

295 (II*). Gymnogramme (§ Pterozonium) cyclophylla, n. sp. (Plate LIII. figs. 1, 2) ; 
caudice erecto, stipitibus ca^spitosis elongatis erectis basi primum paleis minutis 
lineari-subulatis patulis preeditis, frondibus parvis nitidis rigide coriaceis apice 
rotundatis margine recurvato basi cuncatis margine piano, venis flabcllatis 
immersis, soris oblongis ad venarum apicem solum productis cite confiuentibus 
zonam angustam intramarginalem formantibus. 
Stipes wiry, 5-6 in. long. Lamina only about an inch long and broad. Found on 

the summit of the mountain. 

101, 215 (14*). Gymnogramme (§ Pterozonium) elaphoglossoides, n. sp. (Plate LIV. 

figs. 1-5) ; caudice valido lignoso paleis parvis subulatis nigro-castaneis dense 

vestito, stipitibus elongatis erectis nudis castaneis, frondibus simplicibus integris 

rigide coriaceis nudis elliptico-lanceolatis acutis vel obtusis conspicue costatis basi 

cordatis, venis confertis patulis parallelis simplicibus vel furcatis intra marginem 

evanescentibus, soris linearibus cite confiuentibus frondis faciem totam inferiorem 

proeter zonam angustam marginalem occupantibus. 

Stipes wiry, sometimes above half a foot long. Fronds G-8 in. long, fertile 1-2 inches, 

sterile sometimes 3 inches broad. Sori occupying the whole under surface except a 

marginal border. Not more than ^~tV in. broad. Found both upon the upper slopes 

of the mountain and in the neighbourhood of the encampment. 

These two interesting novelties both fall under the genus Pterozonium of Fee, figured 
on tab. 16 of his ' Genera Filicum.' The only species known previously is the very rare 
Gymnogramme reniformis, Mart., figured Icon. Crypt. Bras. t. 26, and also in Hooker's 
' Second Century of Ferns,' t. 9, and on tab. 49 of the Fern volume of ' Flora Bras- 
iliensis.' The two new species are very distinct, both from one another and G. reniformis. 
In G. cyclophylla the sori form a narrow band just within the margin ; in G. reniformis 
a broad semicircle, a distinct space within the margin, whilst in G. elaphoglossoides they 
cover the whole surface except a narrow border. 

164. Gymnogramme Schomburgkiana, Kunze. Upper slopes of the mountain. 
197. Gymnogramme hirta, Desv. Upper slopes of the mountain. New to Guiana. 
159. Gymnogramme flexuosa, Desv. Upper slopes of the mountain. Also new to 


Enterosora, nov. gen. 

Sori oblongi ye] oblongo-cylindrici exindusiati ad venas decurrentes, inti*a frondis 
laminam orti, demum ad frondis faciem inferioreni riinis angustis obliquis imper- 
fecte obvii. Vena? pinnate, venulis paucis ascendentibus prope frondis marginem 
anastoinosantibus et areolas steriles bexagonas soro unico central! includentes 
Most resembles Gi/muof/ramme, from which it differs mainly by having the sori 

immersed in the centre of the frond, and only appearing very partially on its lower 

surface even in a mature stage. 

184 (ex parte). Enterosora Campbellii, Baker. (Plate LV. figs. 1-5.) 

The only species : upper slopes of the mountain, with Polypodium irifurcatwm. Root- 
stock cylindrical, suberect, densely clothed with small brown membranous lanceolate 
palea\ Stipes slender, brown, erect, wiry, 4-5 in. long, with a few very inconspicuous 
spreading fibrillose palea? downwards. Lamina oblanceolate, simple, subcoriaceous, 
glabrous, 6-8 in. long, under an inch broad, obtuse, narrowed gradually to the base, 
conspicuously repand on the margin, with broad rounded lobes. Veins very distinct when 
the frond is held up to the light, arranged in pinnate groups, one opposite each lobe, the 
sterile veinlets forming unequal hexagonal areolae, with a single vein bearing a sorus in 
the centre of each. Sori \-^ in. long, 4-6 to each of the central pinnated groups, erecto- 
patent as regards the whole lamina, seen partially at last on the lower surface by slits 
that seem as if they were made with a knife through the epidermis. 

Erond in shape and texture much resembling that of Polypodium trifurcatum, from 
which it differs by its long stipes and totally different veining, in addition to the entirely 
dissimilar shape and position of its sori. In naming it after the late W. H. Campbell, 
Esq., I am carrying out the wish of Mr. im Thurn. 

170. Vittaria lineata, Sw. Upper slopes of the mountain. 

212, 218. Vittaria stiptjlata, Kunze. Upper slopes of the mountain. New to 

229, 231 . Acrostichtjm latifolium, Sw. Upper slopes of the mountains. Two dif- 
ferent varieties, botli rigid in texture, narrowed very gradually from the middle to 
the base, and 229 dotted over the under surface with minute subpeltate brown paleae. 

233, 238. Acrostichum Lingua, Raddi. 

267. Acrostichum stenopteris, Klotzsch. In the neighburhood of the encampment. 
New to Guiana. 

266. Acrostichum decoratum, Kunze. In the neighbourhood of the encampment. 

278. Acrostichum Aubertii, Desv., var. crimtum, nov. var. Recedes from the 
Brazilian and Colombian type of the species towards A. villosum by its much more 
crinite lamina both in the sterile and fertile frond, and by the stipes being densely 
clothed with squarrose subulate brown palese, as in the Venezuelan^/, lleichenbachii, 
Moritz. Path to the upper slope. The species is new to Guiana. 


237 (45*). Ackosticiium (§ Elaphoglossum) leptopiilebium, n. sp. ; rhizomate repente 

cylindrico lignoso paleis parvis membranaceis laneeolatis brunneis crispatis dense 

vcstito, stipite elongato straminco subnudo, fronde sterili lanceolato membranaeeo 

glabro paleis paucis laneeolatis ad marginem et f'aciem inferiorem praedito, venis 

laxis perspicuis erecto-patentibus simplicibus vel furcatis intra marginem terminan- 

tibus, fronde sterili mnlto minore, stipite longiore. 

Sterile lamina a loot or more long, 18-20 lines broad, cuueate at tbe base, with a 

slender fragile stipe 4-5 inches long. Fertile lamina 4-5 inches long, an ineh broad, 

with a stipe about a foot long. Found upon tbe upper slopes of the mountain. 

93. Acrosticiium muscosum, Sw., var. A. Engelii, Karst. In the neighbourhood of 
the encampment. 
213. Acrosticiium squamosum, Sw. Upper slopes of the mountain. 
41. Acrosticiium (§ Rhipidopteris) peltatum, Sw. In tlie neighbourhood of the 
100. Schiz-EA diciiotoma, Sw. In the neighbourhood of the encampment. New to 
85. Schiz.ea elegans, Sw. In the neighbourhood of the encampment. 
263. Anemia tomentosa, Sw. In the neighbourhood of the encampment. 
146. LrcopoDiUM alopecuroides, L. In the neighbourhood of the encampment. 
192. Lycopodium linifolium, L., var. sarmentosum rubescens, Spring. Upper slopes 

of the mountain. 
230. Lycopodium subulatum, Desv. Base of the cliff. 

226 (159*-). Selaginella (§ Stachygynandrum) vernicosa, n. sp. (Plate LVI. A. figs. 
1-7); caule basi decumbente superne recto laxe piunato, ramulis paucis brevibus 
ascendentibus, foliis heteromorphis distichis crassis firmis nitide viridibus, plana3 
inferioris confertis erecto-patentibus ovatis obtusis margine ubique denticulatis 
planus superioris duplo brevioribus ascendentibus ovatis obtusis valde imbricatis, 
spicis tetragonis brevissimis, bracteis conformibus magnis ovatis acutis. 
This belongs to the Atroviricles group in the neighbourhood of S. MartensU. The 
main stems are about half a foot long, the leafy branches an eighth of an inch broad, 
and the leaves of the lower plane a line long. The type (A. figs. 1-7) as described was 
found at the base of the cliff, and a variety (No. 381) ( B. fig. 8, var. olicjoclada), with much 
fewer more elongated branches, near the encampment. 

122 (186*). Selaginella (§ Stachygyxanduum) roraimensis, n. sp. (Plate LVI. C. 
figs. 9-14) ; caule erecto 3-4-pinnato, ramis laxe dispositis ascendentibus ramulis 
brevibus, foliis heteromorphis distichis membranaceis, plaiue inferioris laxis oblongo- 
lanceolatis acutis valde ina3quilateralibus basi superiore producto late rotundato, 
plana) superioris ovatis ascendentibus cuspidatis, spicis tetragonis. bracteis con- 
formibus ovatis acutis valde imbricatis acute carinatis sporangiis duplo longioribus. 
Belongs to tbe Radiates group in the neighbourhood of S. radiata and confusa. The 
main steins are 4 or 5 inches long, the leafy branches £ in. broad, and the leaves of the 
lower plane a line long. Pound in the neighbourhood of the encampment. 


(271*.) Selaginella (§ Heterostachys) rhodostachya, n. sp. ; caule decuinbente, ramis 
alternis cleltoideis flabellato-bipinnatis, foliis heteroniorphis disticbis menibranaceis, 
planse inferioris laxe dispositis erecto-patentibus ovatis obtusis paulo insequilater- 
alibus, planse superioris consimilibus duplo miuoribus valde ascendentibus, spicis 
brevissimis platystachyoideis, bracteis diinorphis ovatis acutis membranaceis. 
Belongs to tbe group Proniflora? in tbe neighbourhood of S. consimilis and Otonis. 

The stems are half a foot in length, and the leafy branches ^ in. broad. This was 

contained in the collection without any number. 

MUSCI. By Mr. W. Mitten, A.L.S. 

Hookeria (§ Omaeiadelphtjs) crispa, C. Mull. Bot. Zeit. 1855, p. 768. Perfectly fruited, 

near encampment, no. 123. 
Hypopterygium Tamarisci, Brid. ; Hyjmum Tamarisci, Sw. ; Hedw. Muse. Frond, t. 51. 

Without fruit. Near encampment, no. 265. 

Polytrichum aristiflorum, Mitt. Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. vol. xii. p. 620. A few 
barren stems, near encampment, no. 116. 

Creeping over the roots of this are a few stems of Jungermannia perfoliata, Swartz, 
or of one of the closely allied South-American species of the little group to which Mr. 
Spruce has applied the name Syzygiella in the ' Journal of Botany,' 1876, intending it 
to include Jungermannia perfoliata, J. contigua, and J. concreta, Gottsche, J. plagio- 
chiloides and J. pectiniformis, Spruce, also J. macrocalyx, Mont. ; to these must be added 
J. geminifolia, Mitt., Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. vol. vii. p. 161, from tropical Africa, and the 
J. submtegerrima, Reinw. Bl. et Ne'es, Hep. Jav. in the ' Synopsis Hepaticorum,' placed in 
Plagioehila (p. 55). To this species belong P. variegata, Lindenb., P. variabilis, Lacoste, 
and also P. secwrifolia, Lindenb. Sp. Hep. t. x., all of which have the leaf-angles united on 
both sides of the stem, even when they are not opposite, a characteristic which is not 
mentioned in their original descriptions, or depicted in their figures, nor in that of the 
J. macrocalyx as found in the ' Synopsis.' The perianth in J. submtegerrima agrees with 
that found in the species allied to J. colorata, and, as in their case, is subtended by 
shortened and dentate involucral leaves. Exactly similar instances of conjugation of 
the leaf-angles are found in Plagiochila, some of which do not otherwise resemble 
each other. 

Plagiochila adiantoides, Lindenb. Male stems only, upper slope, no. 283. 

Aneura bipinnata, Nees {Jungermannia, Sw.). Specimens taken from large tufts, upper 

slopes, nos. 201, 284. 

In these specimens the stems are 4-5 cm. high, including the side branches 1 cm. wide, 

the ultimate ramuli with a limb of about two rows of more pellucid cells ; in A.fucoides, 

Hook. Muse. Exot. t. 85, this limb is very much wider; in A. Poeppigiana it is nearly or 


quite obsolete. Besides these there are several other remarkable South- American species : 
A. alata, Gottschc, from Chili, a very large species ; A. prehensilis, Hook. f. et Tayl. Fl. 
Ant. t. 1G0. fig. 9 (under Jungermannia) , originally from Ilermite Island, since collected 
by Cunningham, with stems nearly six inches high, and always with its pruinose look 
when dry ; A. polyclada, Mitt., gathered in Otway Harbour, Patagonia, during the visit 
of the 'Challenger' Expedition, a small species about an inch and a half high (frons 
dorso planus hcvis, ramis valde approximates bipinnatis, ventre ramulis curvulis crispulis 
telam spongiosam formantibus, margine ubique limbo e cellularum 3-4 lato pellucidiore di- 
stincto) ; A.pohjpteru, Mitt., from Magellan, collected in Cockle Cove by Dr. Coppinger, 
H.M.S. 'Alert' (frons 10 cm. alt., 2 cm. lat., ramis approximatis tripinnatis ubique 
lamina 5-6 cell, lata, limbatus dorso planus laevis ventre prsecipue in ramis ramulisque 
lamellis angustis longitudinalibus vestitus) ; and A. denticulata, Mitt., from the Andes 
of Bogota, gathered amongst mosses by Weir (frons 5-6 cm. altus cum ramulis 1 cm. 
latus, ramis remotiusculis bipinnatis ubique limbo pellucidiore cell. 4 lato margine 
denticulis divaricatis angustis subciliatus). All these species show that in South America 
there is a development of larger forms than are yet known elsewhere. 

Blepharozia PlORAIM^e. Polia erecto-patentia imbricata, cochleariformi-concava inte- 
gerrima e lobulato obtusa ; involucralia conformia, perianthia (abortiva) cylindracea 
abrupta obtusissima, ore parvo rotundo. 

Prom the top of Roraima, one stem only. 

Entire plant of a dark red-brown colour, about 4 cm. high ; it is divided below into two, 
one branch being again forked, the leaves are imbricated in bifarious order and are 
repeatedly in interrupted series ; each innovation arises from towards one side of the 
dorsal base of the perianth with small leaves, which increase rapidly in size upwards, the 
largest being the involucral, here the greatest diameter is about 4 mm. : the perianths 
are also about 4 mm. long, and of these as many as four are observable on the undivided 
stem, and as each innovation arises from the same position, they stand at the side of the 
stem rather towards the ventral side ; in all particulars they closely resemble the abor- 
tive perianths seen on B. sphagnoides and other species ; the young innovation also 
closely agrees with that of the male amenta of that species ; but there is no trace of the 
lobule, which is not, as has been supposed, distinct from the leaf in B. cochlear if ormis, but 
is seen, from being an almost closed sac in some species, to be opened out in B. ecoluta. 

Plate XXXVII. 

Figs. 1-8. (A.) Leitgebia Imthurniana, Oliver, sp. n. 1, plant in flower; 2, leaf; 3, pedicel and calyx; 

4, bract ; 5, corona ; 6, two stamens and segment of corona ; 7, pistil ; 8, transverse section of 

Figs. 9-17. (B.) Bonnetia Roraima, Oliver, sp. n. 9, plant in flower ; 10, leaf ; 11, flower; 12, calyx ; 

13, petal; 14, phalange of stamens; 15, a back and front view of stamen ; 1G, pistil ; 17, 

transverse section of ovary. 
Figs. 1 and 9 reduced sketches, fig. 8 nat. size ; all the other figures enlarged. 



Figs. 1-6. (A.) Ravenia ruellioides, Oliver, sp. n. 1, portion of plant in flower; 2, calyx and pistil; 3, 

corolla, laid open ; 4, anther, back and front ; 5, pistil ; 6, vertical section of ovary and disk. 

All enlarged. 
Figs. 7-13. (B.) Myrcia (§ Aulomyrcia) Roraimm, Oliver, sp. n. 7, plant; 8, bud; 9, expanded flower; 

10, calyx, the petals and stamens removed; 11, stamen, back and front; 12, longitudinal 

section of ovary and calyx-tube; 13, transverse section of ovary. 

Plate XXXIX. 

Figs. 1-9. (A.) Myrtus stenophyfla, Oliver, sp. n. 1, plant in flower and fruit; 2 & 3, leaf, above and 
below ; 4, expanded flower ; 5, calyx and bracteoles ; 6, stamen, front and back view ; 7, trans- 
verse section of ovary ; 8, fruit ; 9, seed. All enlarged. 

Figs. 10-18. (B.) Microlicia bryanthoides, Oliver, sp. n. 10, plant in flower and fruit; 11, leaves; 
12, bud; 13, expanded flower; 14, longer, 15, shorter stamens; 16, apex of ovary and style; 
17, fruit; 18, seed. All enlarged. 

Plate XL. 

Figs. 1-6. Crepinella gracilis, March. , sp. n. 1, plant in flower ; 2, bud; 3, expanded flower ; 4, stamen, 
front and back view ; 5, calyx-tube and ovary ; 6, longitudinal section of ovary. All 

Plate XLI. 

Figs. 1-8. Sciadophyllum coriaceum, March., sp. n. 1, plant in flower; 2, bud; 3, coherent petals; 
4, petal apart ; 5, anther, back and front ; 6, ovary ; 7, transverse section of ovary ; 8, young 

fruit. All enlarged. 

Plate XLII. 

Figs. 1-7. (A.) Psychotria Imtliurni ana, Oliver, sp. n. 1, plant in flower; 2, stipules; 3, expanded 

flower ; 4, corolla, laid open ; 5, stamen, back and front ; 6, ovary and style ; 7, longitudinal 

section of ovary. 
Figs. 8-15. (B.) Psychotria concinna, Oliver, sp. n. 8, plant in flower; 9, stipules; 10, flower ; 11, 

corolla, laid open; 12, anther, back and front; 13, ovary and style; 14, epigynous disk; 

15, longitudinal section of ovary. All enlarged. 

Plate XLIII. 

Figs. 1-8. (A.) Baccharis Vitis-Idaa, Oliver, sp. n. 1, male plant, and 2, female plant ; 3, male capi- 
tulum ; 4, floret; 5, seta of pappus; 6, stamens; 7, style; 8, female floret. All enlarged. 

Figs. 9-16. (B.) Calea ternifolia, Oliver, sp. n. 9, plant in flower; 10 & 11, scales of involucre; 
12, palea of receptacle ; 13, floret; 14, seta of pappus ; 15, anthers; 16, style. All enlarged. 

Plate XLIV. 

Figs. 1-6. (A.) Ledothamnus guyanensis, Meissn. 1, plant in flower; 2 & 3, leaves; 4, sepal; 5, 

stamens, front and back view ; 6, pistil. All enlarged. 
Figs. 7-11. (B.) Utricularia (§ Campbelliana, Oliver, sp. n. 7, different views of plant 

in flower , 8, ampullae ; 9, calyx-lobe ; 10, lower lip of corolla and spur ? ; 11, stamens. All 



Plate XLV. 
Figs. 1 & 2. Tabebuia Roraimee, Oliver, sp. n. 1, plant in flower; 2, stamens. All enlarged. 

Plate XLVI. 

Figs. 1-6. (A.) Epidendrum Imthurnii, Ridley, sp. n. 1, plant in flower ; 2, flower; 3, labellum and 
column, front view; 4, ditto, side view; 5, anther-case; 6, pollinia. All enlarged. 

Figs. 7-10. (B.) Epidendrum violascens, Ridley, sp. n. 7, plant in flower ; 8, expanded flower ; 9, same, 
posterior sepal and lateral petal attached ; 10, fruiting specimen. Figs. 7 and 10 about nat. 
size, 8 and 9 are enlarged. 

Plate XLVII. 

Figs. 1-6. Zygopetalum venustum, Ridley, sp. n. 1, plant in flower; 2, labellum and column; 3, label- 
lum, side view ; 4, column ; 5, anther-case ; 0, pollinium. All enlarged. 

Plate XLVIII. 

Figs. 1-6. (A.) Stenoptera adnata, Ridley, sp. n. 1, plant in flower; 2, flower; 3, labellum; 4, 

column ; 5, same, side view ; 6, pollen. All enlarged. 
Figs. 7-11. (B.) Pelexia aphy I 'la, Ridley, sp. n. 7, plant in flower ; 8, expanded flower ; 9, longitudinal 

section of perianth-tube, with labellum ; 10, column ; 11, pollen. All enlarged. 

Plate XLIX. 

Figs. 1-6. (A.) Tofieldia Schumburgkiana, Oliver, sp. n. 1, plant in flower; 2, fragment of leaf, showing 
ciliolate margin ; 3, flower ; 4, stamen ; 5, pistil ; 6, transverse section of ovary. All en- 

Figs. 7-14. (B.) Pwpalanthus Roraimie, Oliver, sp. n. 7, plant ; 8, outer smaller, and inner larger 
involucral bracts; 9, staminate flower and bracteole; 10, same, expanded; 11, inner peri- 
anth-segment and adnate stamen; 12, stamen, back and front view; 13, pistillate flower; 
14, pistil. All enlarged. 

Plate L. 

Figs. 1-8. (A.) Xyris setigera, Oliver, sp. n. 1, plant in flower ; 2, fragment of leaf, showing setose 
margin; 3, involucral bract; 4, flower; 5, perianth, laid open; 6, stamen; 7, penicillate 
staminodia; 8, style-branches. All enlarged. 

Figs. 9-15. (B.) Xyris witsenioides, Oliver, sp. n. 9, plant in flower; 10 & 11, involucral scales; 12, 
perianth, laid open; 13, 13a, anthers, back and front; 14, staminode; 15, pistil. All en- 

Plate LI. 

Figs. 1-6. Cryptangium stellatum, Boeckl. 1, plant; 2, branchlet of inflorescence; 3, spikelet; 4 & 5, 
outer and inner glumes ; 6, anther. All enlarged. 

Plate LII. 

Figs. 1-8. Everardia montana, Ridley, sp. n. 1, plant; 2, branchlet of inflorescence ; 3, male spikelet; 
4, florets; 5, glume; 6, stamens ; 7, female spikelet; 8, pistil and hypogynous setae. Fig. 1 
about nat size, all others enlarged. 


Plate LIII. 

Figs. 1,2. Gymnogramme (§ Pterozonium) cyclophylla, Baker, sp. n. 1, plant; 2, portion of frond, 

Plate LIV. 

Figs. 1-5. Gymnogramme (§ Pterozonium) elaphoglossoides, Baker, sp. n. 1, upper, 2, lower surface of 
frond; 3, palea; 4, portion of frond, showing venation and position of sori; 5, rootstock. 
Figs. 3 and 4 enlarged. 

Plate LV. 

Figs. 1-5. Enter osora CampbeUii, Baker, gen. nov. 1, plant ; 2, palea ; 3, portion of frond, showing 
venation and sori ; 4, horizontal section of a frond ; 5, portion of same, much enlarged. 

Plate LVI. 

Figs. 1-7. (A.) Selaginella (§ Stachygynandrum) vernicosa, Baker, sp. n. 1, plant; 2, fertile branch ; 

3, front view of portion of stem, and 4, back view of same ; 5, stipule (or smaller leaf) ; 6, bract; 

7, capsule. 
Fig. 8. (B.) Selaginella (§ Stachygynandrum) vernicosa, var. oligoclada. 
Figs. 9-14. (C.) Selaginella (§ Stachygynandrum) roraimensis, Baker, sp. n. 9, plant ; 10, fertile 

branch; 11, back of stem; 12, leaf ; 13, stipule ; 14, bract with capsule. 
Figs. 1, 8, and 9 of natural size, all the othei's enlarged. 

: - ■ 




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A 1-6 RAVEN I A E 


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LJNN.S C Ser 2 Bot 



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a OL1GOCLADA 9-14.S.RORA1M1 ■ ■ 



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2nd Ser. BOTANY.] 










N. E. BROWN, A.L.S., & others. 
(Communicated by Sir W. Thiselton-Dyer, K.C.M.G., F.R.S.) 





January 1901. 

T \i A NS A ( TI ON 8 



I. Report on ttco Botanical Collections made by Messrs. F. V. McConnell and J. .J. 
Quelch at Mount Roraima in, British Guiana. By N. E. Brown, A.L.S., and 
others. (Communicated by Sir William Thiseltox-Dyer, K.C.3I.G-, F.R.S., 
F.L.S., Director of the Royal. Botanic Gardens, Kew.) 

(Plates I. -XIV.) 

Road loth March, 1900. 



Introduction. By I. H. Bukkill, M.A., F.L.S 1 

Enumeration of the Plants collected 8 

I. Spermatophyta. By N. E. Brown, A.L.S. (the Orchidacese by R. A. Rolfe, A.L.S.). ... 18 

II. Pteridophyta. By C. H. Wrisht, A.L.S 77 

III. Bryophyta : Musci. By V. F. Brotherds, Ph.D 88 

Hepatica 1 . By F. Stephaxi 93 

IV. Thallophyta. By G. Masses, F.L.S 101 


By I. H. Burkill, M.A., F.L.S. 

I N the autumn of 1894 Messrs. F. V. McConnell and J. J. Quelch first visited Roraima ; 
they were there again in the autumn of 1898, and on hoth occasions not only encamped 
higher on the slopes of the mountain than any previous traveller, but they spent nights 
on the summit in order that the time given to collecting its flora and fauna should be 
uninterrupted. The collections of plants were transmitted to Kew, and hoth are 
enumerated in this paper. 



In 1894 the journey to Roraima commenced (October 16) at Kwaimatta, a village on 
the open savannah to the south-east in latitude 3° 50' N. The Ireng was crossed at the 
Karona Falls, the Kotinga at Sokoking, a ford not named on the older maps, but situated 
a little to the south of the meeting of the Kotinga and Karakanang streams. Thence 
the way led into the Arabapu Valley (November 3), on the north and west sides of which 
rise the slopes of Roraima. The return journey was commenced on November 11, and 
the route taken crossed the Kotinga nearer its source at Orinidoui (apparently the 
" Orinidouk " of the old maps), and the Ireng again at the Karona Falls. 

In 1898 the journey was commenced (August 20) on the lower Mazaruni River. The 
great bend of this river, where the Peaiman Falls occur, was avoided by a porterage 
from the Kurubung Creek to the upper Mazaruni, which was again left by the Kako 
River; the Kako was paddled up until a point was reached about twenty miles north-east 
of Roraima, and thence, leaving the canoes, a track through dense forest was taken until, 
in the second week of October, the south-eastern face of the mountain was reached. 
Roraima was left again at the end of October, and the way retraced to the lower 

Three days in 1894, nine in 1898, were spent in making collections upon the broken 
plateau which forms the summit of Roraima. 

Visitors to Roraima. 

R. H. SCHOMBUROK . . . . 

R. H. and 

Richard Schojtburgk . 

Carl Arru.v 

C. B. Brown and 
J. Gr. Sawkins. 

.J. W. Boddam-Whe III All 
and M. McTtjrk. 

D. Burke 


E. F. isi Thurn and 
H. I. Perkins. 

E. Kromer 


F. V. McConneu. and 

J. J. Ql'ELCH. 

F. V. McUonniii. and 







1 884 





End Oct. to 
Dec. 5. 

End Oct. to 
Nov. 22. 

End Jan. to 
end Feb. 

Early Feb. 


Feb. to Apr. 

and Nov. 

Nov. to Dec. 



Height reached. 

Base of Mountain. 

Base of cliff on S. 

Route to Roraima 

Return Journey. 

From S. over Hunii- 
rida Mtns. 


Base of cliff on E. From X. over 
and S. sides. Merume Mtn<. 

Upper slopes. From S.I',. 




Summit from the 
S. side. 





From X. over 
Merume Mtns. 

From X. 

From R. Potaro to 
Ireng, then to 
Roraima from S.E. 

From N. over 

Merume Mtns. 
From S.E. 

From N. over 
Merume Mtns. 

Retraced steps. 

At first S., then to 
W. of Roraima. 
Retraced steps. 

Towards S.E. to 

Retraced steps. 

Retraced >t<-|i^. 

To S.E. by a some- 
what parallel 

Retraced steps. 


JlijHHtmnec and Structure of lioritihta, and its Geographical Relations to the Moun- 
tain-systems of South America. — Im Tliuni and Perkius, who made the first ascent on 
December 18, 18S I, reached (he top under unfavourable conditions: they had ascended 
that dav from their base-camp at 5100 feet, and only reached the summit in the 
afternoon, when clouds almost invariably envelop it; they had no means of remaining 
there, and were forced to return after a very short stay of three hours. Perkins speaks 
of these clouds as impenetrable (Proc. Boy. Geogr. Soe. vii. 1885, p. 532)*; at all 
events they limited the range of exploration, and the report was made that "the 
vegetation on the summit is extremely scanty and insignificant, there being no trees, 
only small hushes from three to six feet in height, growing at long intervals." It has 
been reserved for McConnell and Quelch to ascertain that there exist in favoured 
places trees which attain a height of no less than forty feet. 

Of the ascents of Dressel and Kromer I can glean no more than is in a brief notice in 
• Timehri,' 1887, p. 330. Neither can have remained on the summit for more than a fevi 

The features of this summit are: — Blackened elevated ridges, irregularly terraced and 
rugged; winding gullies which drain away the superabundant rain through shallow 
pools ; patches of sand in their shelter with isolated small bushes ; clumps of vegetation 
lodged in the most protected s]>ots ; piles of wind-cut rocks without a sign of plant-life, 
rising into pinnacles ; no soil ; the keen northerly wind, and mists which gather at least 
after noon on almost every day in the whole year. The highest pinnacle rises to 
8740 feet ; the deepest gully may be 400 feet helow it. 

The known sides of the mountain which face north-east and south-easL, produce rocky 
sivannah up to 5000 or 5100 feet, the rocks so numerous that Ajipun likens the country 
to a grave-yard ; then forest to 7100 feet, dense below but stunted and more open above ; 
and from this altitude rise the precipitous cliffs, which give to the whole the appearance 
of a vast fortress with a tree-clad glacis slope. 

These precipices were deemed impossible of ascent by the travellers they had baffled 
until AVhitely indicated, and im Thurn showed practicable, the one known ledge leading 
to the summit. 

The rock is a quartzose sandstone interbedded with diorite. The topmost and thickest 
bed of diorite comes to the surface where the dense forest is ; the lower beds make a 
series of terraces down the lower slopes. These beds lie perfectly horizontal without 
folding or other sign of any great disturbance. Diorite lends itself to the formation of a 
soil f, the sandstone does not. 

Such sandstones as constitute Roraitna have a very wide extension in South America ; 
they pass eastward into Surinam; Duida is made of them; they form the bed-rock of 
the llanos of Venezuela, and appear in the Caripe mountains to the east of Caraeas ; 
in Brazil the area occupied by them is immense. 

* Of. im Thurn in ' Timehri,' 1 885, p. 41. 

t The Indians prepare their provision-grounds on the diorite (see Brown & Sawkins, Reports, p. 17). ami those 
living under the south-eastern face of ltoraima have placed them far up- the sister-mountain of Kukenaam, \\ 
the diorite comes to the surface (Quelch. in ' Timehri,' 1895, p. 16 I I 



All this sandstone area belongs to the oldest land of South America : against the edge 
of it the Andes were heaped up — newer land which grew to its present form in the 
tertiary period, and formed a link of high ground round the head of the then existing 
Amazon valley. 

It is significant to us that the chief mountain-systems of South America outside 
the Andes reach very similar heights and similarly stand more or less parallel to the 
nearest coast, whence the trade-winds bring an abundance of rain. These mountain- 
systems are three : (1) the Coast Andes of Venezuela, of direct eruptive origin, but 
continued eastward from Caracas in the lesser sandstone mountains of Caripe; (2) the 
Parime mountains with Roraima at the eastern end and Duida at the western end ; 
and (3) the mountains of South Brazil formed of schists tipped at a high angle. 

Coast Andes. 

Niaguata 9125 feet. 

Silk of Caracas 8741 „ 

Taraava 8052 ., 

Heights * north of the Equator. 

Parime .Mountains. 

Roraima 8740 feet. 

Duida 8278 „ 

[Peaks near Duida estimated at 10,000 feet.] 

Height** in South Brazil. 

Itatiaia 8999 feet. 

Organ Mountains 0609 „ and more. 

Serra da Caraya . 041 1 „ 

Itambe ... 5900 feet. 

Serra da Piedada 5874 „ 

Itaeolumi 5700 ,, 

Unlike in geological structure the three systems are unlike as well in their relation 
to the Andes. The Casiquiare, by uniting the Orinoco and Amazon, encircles the Parime 
mountains, and the undulating country of little elevation to the west of it effectually 
separates this system from the Andes ; the plains of Matto Grosso, &c, wherein rise 
within a few miles of each other the Paraguay and Madeira, to flow the one north, the 
other south, separate the Brazilian mountains and the Andes ; but the Venezuelan coast- 
range is most intimately bound to the Andes proper through the Cordillera of Merida. 

Spanish settlers in the New World soon came to recognize a belt on the mountains of 
the tropics suited to their needs and for the growth of their food-plants. They called it 
the temperate land — " tierra templada," — and the range of its mean annual temperature 
may be set down as 15°-20° C. (59°-77° F.). Above the " tierra templada" is the "tierra 
fria," below it the " tierra caliente." 

The limits of these belts depend on exposure. In the Venezuelan mountains, according 
to Sievers (' Venezuela,' p. 2G), the " tierra fria " extends from about 7200 feet upwards ; 
among the Great Andes it sometimes commences as high as 10,000 feet ; on Roraima 

* The heights of the Coast Andes are taken from Sievers's ' Venezuela' (Hamburg, 1888), pp. 277, 278 ; those 
of Duida and neighbouring peaks from Sir Robert Schomburgk's narrative in Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc. x. 
1840, p. 245; and those of the Brazilian mountains, Itambe excepted, from Liais, ' Climats, Ge'ologie, Faune 
et Geographie botanique du Bresil' (Paris, 1872), pp. 45-49. Most astounding are the erroneous statements 
published regarding the altitudes of the Brazilian mountains ; for instance, the Serra dos Pyrenaos, estimated 
previously to reach 9700 feet, proves to be no more than 4543 feet (G'ruls, ' Relatorio da Commisao exploradora,' Rio, 
1894, p. 26). 


it descends presumedly into fehe forest-belt or to the base of the dills*. Roraima bears 
t lie most eastern patch of " tierra fria " upon the northern side of tbe Amazon. 

Some hundreds of feel above the commencement of tbe "tierra fria" is the limit 
of trees. There are reasons for believing that both the Coast Andes and Etoraima just 
reach this limit; tbey do not distinctly rise above it 

The Flora. — Passing on to a consideration of the nature of the flora of Roraima 1 have 
given in the table on pp. 8-16 as complete a list as is now possible of the species found 
on tbe mountain above 5000 feet, and we have in it : 

2:5!) Spermatophyta, of which 121 (50'6 per cent.) are endemic. 

88 Pteridophyta, of which 16 (18'2 per cent.) are endemic. 

63 Bryophyta, of which 15 (23"8 per cent.) are endemic. 

11 Thallophyta, of which 3 (27'3 per cent.) are endemic. 
The proportion of endemic Spermatophyta may seem large, but does not exceed that on 
record for some of the mountains of Mexico. Of far greater interest is the number of 
endemic genera. The law that mountains by their isolation and extension, as well as bv 
their latitude, ]>roduce endemic genera, is illustrated by their number in the ranges of 
Cis-equatorial South America ; thus, there are eleven among the Spermatophyta on 
Roraima, and only two on the Coast Andes, which are comparatively small and not 
isolated ; but I am aware of no fewer than thirty-six in tbe extensive Andes of Colombia, 
including with them the Cordillera of Merida. 

The endemic genera of Roraima are enumerated on p. 7. They belong to as mauv 
orders. One of them — Seliamphora — has no kindred in South America, but belongs, 
like Oyrilla, to a North-American group ; all the rest have more or less close allies 
in genera of the South-American continent. Ledothamnus, however, deserves further 
remark because it is one of the very few Ericaceae with ericoid leaves which exist in the 
New World. 

* This belief is based chiefly upon the nature of the flora. With regard to temperature the following may be 
added: — Hanu (' Handbuch der C'limatologie,' Stuttgart, 1883, p. 152), after quoting Boussiugault's estimate for 
the Andes of the tropics that ••37° C. in mean annual temperature is lost for every 100 metres ascended, and 
Humboldt's for Mexico and Colombia of '53° C. for every 100 metres, adds : " as a general rule for the tropics ona 
may allow '58° C. for the amount of heat lost in every 100 metres ascended." This is equivalent to -4° F. for every 

100 feet. As the mean annual temperature of Demerara is 81°, we obtain for Roraima these figures : 65° F. at 

4000 feet, 00° at 5400. 53° at 7100, 47° at 8600, and 40 at 8740 feet. The following are all the recorded 
observations of which I am aware : — 


6-8 A.M. 

Summit, Quelch in 1894 47° F. 

,, im Thurn .... 

About 7000 ft., Appun 50° 

About 6400 ft., Quelch 50 J 

About 5400 ft., R. Schomburgk . . 52° 

,, ,, ,, im Thurn 48° 

At the base, R. Schomburgk. ..... 58" and below 

i, ,• ,, oo o 

„ ,, Brown .... 

„ „ Boddam-Whetham . . i Below 60° 

„ „ Quelch < 54° 

49-52° F. 



Midday and afternoon. 

64°-5 F. 
54° (in mist). 

87° (shade). 
100° (sun). 


The endemic genera of the Coast Andes are Enosmia and Caracasia. Euosmia, Humb. 
& Bonpl., belongs to the Rubiaceae, and was found by Humboldt and Bonpland in the 
mountains of Caripe ; it is a little obscure and needs re-examination. Caracasia, Szyszy. 
( Vargasia, Ernst) is a genus of the Marcgravieae, with two species found near Caracas ; 
it is nearly related to the genus Ruyschia, found in the West Indies and from Guiana 
to Peru. 

Following the list of endemic genera on p. 7 are three lists to be considered together. 
All are of genera represented in the tierra fria of the Andes : the first contains seven 
found on Eoraima, throughout the Andes to Chili, and in South Brazil ; the second 
contains fourteen found on Eoraima and in the Northern Andes, but reaching neither 
Chili nor the mountains of South Brazil; the third list contains thirteen found in the 
Andes, which have passed aloDg the Coast Andes to Niaguata or the Silla of Caracas*, 
but have not yet been found on Eoraima. 

These lists illustrate two points : — in the first place, they indicate how the Coast 
Andes belong essentially to the Andes proper, — and the community of genera extends 
to sjiecies in Cinchona, Accena, Cardamine, and Berberls ; in the second place, that 
Eoraima and the mountains of South Brazil only have in common among woody plants 
montane genera so widely Andine as to pass from Colombia to Chili. One is then led to 
suspect that the mountains near Eio de Janeiro obtained their Andine shrubby genera 
from the south-west, and that in their case the plains of Matto Grosso have been a very 
similar barrier to immigration as the wooded hills on the west of the Casiquiare have 
been to the Parime mountains. 

Six more genera are named in a last list ; they are common to Eoraima and to tin 1 
mountains of South Brazil, without reaching Chili ; but they all descend to low levels in 
the Province of Alto Amazonas, and obviously are not montane in a restricted sense. 

< )ther genera which cannot be regarded as truly montane, contribute montane forms 
to the flora of Eoraima. The most notable of these is Abolboda, of which genus 
A. Sceptrum is by far the largest species. 

Saxofrederida regalis is, like Abolboda Sceptrum, the largest of its genus. Lisianthm 
Elizabethce and another species collected under this name by Appun are among the 
largest-flowered of these gentians; and Utricularia Rvmboldtii so impressed Sir Eobert 
Scbomburgk by its showy blossoms as to cause him to name the place where be first saw 
it the El Dorado Swamp, after the treasure-city Raleigh and others sought in Guiana. 

im Thurn has suggested a resemblance between the floras of Eoraima and the 
Brazilian mountains (Trans. Linn. Soc, ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 257), but the similarities 
he notes are much more due to similarities of climate than to any evidently intimate 
relationship between them in times past. 

A very rough estimate of the number of genera of Spermatophyta in the flora of 
British Guiana places the total at 1070. The orders most strongly represented 
are :— Leguminosae 86, Orchidaceae 66, Bubiaceae 54, Compositae 44, Gramineae 43, 
Euphorbiaceae 31, and Melastomaceae 28. On Eoraima above 5000 feet, the order 

* Ernst in Journ. Bot, x. 1872, p. 261 ; in Bull. Soc. Bot. France, xxii. Rev. Bibl. p. 239 ; in ' Idea general de la 
Flora de Venezuela ' in ' Estudios sobre la Flora v Fauna de Venezuela ' (Caracas, 1877), pp. 21 2-235 ; and elsewhere. 


Endemic Genera \2 occur on the Kaieteur Savannah), 

Heliamphora (Sarraceniaceae). Notopura (Vacciniacese). 

Leitgebia (Violacese). Ledothamnus (Ericaceae). 

Biepharandra (Malpighiacea3 . Connel/ia (Bromeliaceae). 

Crepinella (Araliacese). Nietneriu (Liliaceae). 

Chalepophyllum (Rubiaceae). Everardia (Cyperaceas). 

Quelchia (Conipositae) . [Enterosora (Filices)]. 

Genus J'oii ml at either end of the Parime Mountains. 
Sfri/olcpis ( Rapateaceae) . 

Genera of I hi' Amies (as regards S. America) extending from the North l<> Chile, 
also to Horaima and the Mountains of South Brazil '. 

Drimys (Magnoliacea?) 
? Monnina (Polygalaceae). 
Weinmannia ( Saxifragacese 

Relbuniiuu ( Rubiaceae). 

Gaul t her ia ( Ericaceae). 
Pernetlya (Ericaceae). 
Puya (Bromeliaceae). 

Genera of the Northern Andes (as regards S. America), not overpassing Bolivia 
southwards, reaching Horaima, but not South Brazil. 

Chielolepis (Melastomacese). 
Centronia (Mclastomaceae). 
Monoch(elum (Melastomaceae). 
Viburnum (Caprifoliaceae ). 
Psammisia (Vacciniacese). 
Cavendishia (Vacciniacea' ). 
Vaccin'mm (Vacciiiiacete). 

Sophoclesia (Vaeciuiaceae). 
Sphyrospermum (Vacciniacea;) . 
Befaria (Ericacea:). 
Grammadenia ( Myrsiuaceae) . 
Scaphosepulum (Orchiclaceae). 
Lepanthes (Orchidaceie). 
Tofieldia (Liliaceae). 

Genera extending from the Andes along the Coast Andes of Venezuela to the 
Neighbourhood of Caracas, but not yet found on the Parime Mountains. 
Berbrris (Berberidaceae). Sedum (Crassulaceae). 

Cardamine (Cruciferae). 
Arenaria (Caryophyllaceoe). 
Adesmia (Leguminosae). 
Acmia (Rosaceae). 
Potentilla (Rosaceae). 
Escallonia (Saxif'nigaceae). 

Cinchona (Rubiaceae). 
Galium (Rubiaceae). 
Espeletia (Compositae). 
Gaylussucia (Vacciniaceas). 
Muehlenbergia ( G ram ineae) . 

Genera, found on Boraima and the Mountains of South Brazil, avoiding the 
Chilian Andes, but occurring at low levels in Alto Amazonas, 8rc. 

Remijia (Rubiaceae). 
Ladenbergia (Rubiaceae). 
Stifftia (Compositoe). 

Hedyosmum (Chlorantbaceae ) . 
Masdevallia (Orchidaceaeh 
Stenoptera (Orchidaceae). 



of the Orchidaceae comes first, Melastomaceae second, Compositar- third, and Rubiace;c 
and Gramineae bracketed fourth. 

It is unfortunate that all the plants collected on the upper parts of Boraima have 
been gathered in the last three months of the year. February brings to lloraima a few 
bare trees (Appun, ' Unten den Tropen,' ii. p. 220): March brings copious Gesnerads into 
flower, at least at the foot of the mountain (Boddani- "Whetham, ' Boraima ') ; and April is 
a month producing more flowers than November (Siedel fide im Thurn in Trans. Linn. 
Soc, ser. II. ii. p. 250) ; but I am unable to record anything collected above 5000 feet 
during these months. 

In conclusion, my thanks for help are due to Messrs. McConnell, Quelch, and C. B. 
Clarke, to my colleagues, and also to Professor T. Mclvenny Hughes and Dr. William 

The Flora of Roraima above oOWfeet, as now known, with the Geographical 

Distribution of each Species. 


Drimys granatensis, Mutis 


Heliamphora nutans, Benth 


Sauvagesia erecta, Linn 

Leitgebia Imthurniana, Oliver. . . . 


Polygala gloehidiata, H. P. & K. . . 
„ Jiygrophila, H. P. & K.. . 
„ longicaulis, H. P. & K. . . 

,, variabilis'!, H. P. & X.. . 
Monnina cacumina, X. E. Pr 


Moronobea intermedia, Engl 

Clusia palmicida, Rich 


Marcgravia sp 

Bonnetia Roraima?, Oliver 

Archytasa multiflora, Benth 


Sida Unifolia, Benth 


Byrsonima crassifolia, H. B. & K. 

Heteropteris oil e<r folia, Uriseb 

Tetrapteris rhodopteron, Oliver . . 


Ravenia ruellioides, Oliver 


Hex retusa, Klotzsch 

„ apicidens, N. E. Br 

„ vacciniifolia, Klotzsch 


to Summit. 

to Ledge. 

Ledge & Summit. 

to 5400 ft. 

to 5400 ft. 
to 54(Hi tt. 
to 5400 ft. 

:it 5400 ft. 
to 600O ft. 

at 5400 ft. 
to 6000 ft. 

to 540O ft. 

to 5401 I ft . 
to Upper slopes. 
to 5400 ft. 
to 5400 ft. 

Upper slope. 

to Summit. 
to 6000 ft. 


— r ~ 
■- bo 

™ 3! 

s s 




a a 

N - — 

- s- 


W. Indies. 

• • 
























= s 










2 .5 
IS '£ 


o " 

1 -1 

g r. 

- a 

03 'Z 




h- 1 


E B 

Isewhere in 











CyrUhi bi'evifoUa, N. E, Br 



Swarizia sp 

at 5000 ft. 

to Upper slopes. 

Gtssiti insignis, X. E. lir 

to Upper .slopes. 
to Upper slopes. 

Villi, riihihui hi J, rrugineum, licntli. .. 


to 7100 ft. 

to 7100 ft. 






Weinmannia guyanensis, Klotzsch . . 

to Summit. 

elliptica, II. B. & K. . . 

to 6000 ft. 

, . 



,, fagaroides, II. B. & K. 


. . 



to Summit. 








to Summit. 

. . 




„ roraimensis, N. E. Br 




Microlida bryantJioklea, Oliver .... 

to Summit. 

Cambessedesia Roraimce, Rich. 

to 6000 ft. 


Siphanthera microli-cioides, Cogn, . . 

to 5401) ft. 

Macairea aspera, N. E. Br 

Upper slopes. 

Tibouchina fralerna, N. E. Br 

Upper slopes. 

to 5400 ft. 

to 5400 ft. 





Chcetolepis anisandra, Naud 

to Lcdfje. 

to 710(1 ft. 





to Summit. 



at 600D ft. 
at 5750 ft. 

Cenlronia crassiramis, Triana 

Miconiu tinifolia, Naud 

to Summit. 
Upper slopes. 
tn 5400 ft. 





, holosericea, !•(■ 

,, Fothergilla, Naud 



to 6000 ft. 

„ guyanensis, Aubl 

to 6000 ft. 



to 6000 ft. 




tu 6000 ft. 


Passiflorai IE 1 . 

about 5400 ft. 


at 5400 ft. 






Didymopanax rugosum, N. E. Br. . . 


Sciadophyllum coriaceum, March. . . 

at 540O ft. 

,, umbellatum, X. E. Br. 

Upper slopes. 



Viburnum glabratum, H. B. & K. . . 

to 7100 ft. 

, , 






to 6000 ft. 


to 60(H) ft. 


„ ih nsiflora, Benth 

i«. 6000 ft. 

Ladenbergia Lambertiana, Klotzsch 

to 6000 ft. 


Chalepophyllum speciosum, N. E. Br. 










" T3 
- - 



t i 


F '— 

B t 

"3 "o 



"3 5 

% 1 * 








to 5400 ft. 






to 5400 ft. 





Retinijahyllum laxiflorum, X T .E. Br. . 

Upper slopes. 

to Summit. 

to 6000 ft. 




to 6000 ft. 



,, Imthurniana, Oliver .... 

to Ledge. 

to 6000 ft. 

Declimxia chiococcoides, H. B. & K. . 

to 540(i ft. 





to 5400 it. 



to 5400 ft. 


to 6000 ft. 


to 6000 ft, 



to 5400 ft. 







N. & S. 

„ roraimense, X. E. Br. .. 


„ fuscum, N. E. Br 


nt 5400 ft. 

Baceharis Vitis-idcea, Oliver 

to Summit. 

„ sp., near B. eassince- 


ffeterothalamus densus, X. E. Br. . . 


Qnaphalium purpureum, Linn 

to 5400 ft. 







X. & S. 


to 5400 ft. 

to 5400 ft. 






Quelchia conferta, N. E. Br 


Erechtites hieraciifolia, Rafln 

to 5400 ft. 







X. & S. 


Stifftia eondensata, Baker 

to Summit. 

Connellii, N. E. Br 



( ', ntrqpoc/on laevigatus, A. DC 

to Ledge. 


, surinamensis, Presl 

to 5400 ft. 








Psammisia guianensis, Klotzsch . . . . 

at 6000 ft. 

„ formosa, Klotzsch .... 

nt o ft. 

M corktcea, X T . E. Br 


In 5400 ft. 

Notopora SchomburgJcii, Hook. f. . . 

to 5400 ft. 

Cavendishia sp. (Thibaudia nutans, 

at 6000 ft. 

Vaceinium puberulum, Klotzsch 

to 6000 ft. 

n roraimtmse, X. E. Br. 


Sphyrospermum Roraimce, Klotzsch 

to 6000 ft.+ 


Eric mie. 

Pernettya marginata, X. E. Br 


Gaultheria setuhsa, X. E. Br 



Roraimce, Klot/.sch) 

to 54(io ft. 




/. dothamnus sessiliflorus, X T . E. Br. . 

to Summit. 

to Ledge. 

„ Imihumii, X. E. Br 


„ SchomburgJcii, Klotzsch . . . . 

to 6000 ft. 


to 6000 ft. 

Cybianthus sp 

at 6000 ft. 

t If synonymous with Hw/Jma guianensis, Klotzsch & Rich. Schomb. 



2 ll 







_ c 

u - 

c 8 
1. ■• 







Ml Rsl.VU'K.E [cuiil.). 

Grammadenia lineata, Benth 

to 5400 ft. 

Ardisia Qu< Ichii, N. E. Br 

Suiiiinil . 



Ghrysophyllwm emarginatwm, 

at 6000 ft. 


Luctnnn r'n/ii/ii, Mart. & Eichl. .... 

at 5400 ft. 


Mandevilla any us ti folia (Echites an-. 

gustifolia, Benth.) . . 

to 6000 ft. 

Upper slopes. 


Nephradenia linearis^, Benth 

to • r )4()n ft. 



Logan iack-k. 

to Upper slopes. 



Gentian u e.k. 

Curtui tenuiflora (Schuebleria tenui- 

to 5400 ft. 





Lisianthus uliginosus, Miq 

to Upper slopes. 



„ Elisabethce, Griseb 

to Ledge. 

„ Imihumianus, < (liver 


Quelchii, N. E. Br 


ScKornri. \ni\CE.E. 

Melasma'', spathaeeum, Oliver .... 

Upper slopes. 

to Upper slopes. 





Utricularia Humboldtii, Rob. 

to Ledge. 

Upper slopes, 
to Upper slopes. 



,, Campbelliana, Oliver . . 

„ alpina, Jacq. (U. mon- 

tana, Jacq.) 

to Upper slopes. 



Quelchii, N. E. Br 


,, roraimensis, N. E. Br. . . 


Genlisea roraimensis, X. E. Br 



to Upper slopes. 


Lippia SchoniburgJciana, Schauer . . 

to Upper slopes. 



to 5400 ft, 



* ■ 





Coccoloba Schomhuvgkii, Meissti 

to 541 M 1 ft. 


Peperomia reflexa, A. Dietr 

to Upper slopes. 








to Upper slopes. 



at 54(H) ft. 


Hedyosmum brasiliense '.', Mart 

Upper slopes. 



Roupala Schomburgkii, Klotzsch 

at 6000 ft. 


to 6000 ft. 

Phoradendron Roraimce, Oliver . . .. 

Ledge & Summit. 


Phyllanthus pycnophyllus, Muell.- 

at 54i 11 1 ft. 

+ Apparently C auratum, Miq. 





§ £ 




s s 

c . 
c ^ 
£ 83 

^ .— 





£ S 


5J "C 






at 0000 ft. 


Upper slopes. 








Burmannia bicolor, Mart 

to Upper slopes. 







Dictyostegia orobanchoides, Miers 

to Upper slopes. 






to Upper slopes. 



,, roraimensis, Rolfe . . . . 


Slelis grandiflora, Lindl 

Upper slopes. 
Upper slopes, 
at 5400 ft. 



Masdevallia picturata, Reichb. f. . . 

to Upper slopes. 




to Upper slopes. 



„ sp 

Upper slope. 

Bulbophyllumsj). (B. gerae'nse, Ridley, 

vix Reichb. f.) . . 

to 5400 ft, 

„ roraimense, Rolfe .... 


Elleanthus furfuraceus, Reichb. f. . . 

Upper slopes. 




to Summit. 







„ TmtTmmii, Ridley . . . . 


to Upper slopes. 



to 5400 ft. 


,, montigenum, Ridley. . . . 



Oattleya Lawreneeana, Reichb. f. . . 

to 6000 ft, 

Zygopetalum Burkei, Reichb. f. .... 

to Upper slopes. 

Eriopsis Schomburgkii, Reichb. f. . . 

to Upper slopes. 


Houlletia roraimensis. Rolfe 

to Upper slopes. 

Catasetum discolor, Lindl. 

to Upper slopes. 



Maxillaria Qn.elc7t.ii, Rolfe . 


Oneidium nigratum, Lindl. . 

to 4500 ft. 
to 6000 ft. 
Upper slope, 
to Upper slopes. 



Sobralia LiUastrum, Lindl 

Epistephium Iveidum, Cogn 



Stenoptera viscosa, Reichb. f 

to Upper slopes. 



,, adnata, Ridley 

U pper slopes. 

Spiranthes bifida, Ridley 

to 5400 ft. 

Pogonia parviflora, Lindl. 

to Upper slopes. 



to Upper slopes. 




„ tenuis, Reichb. f 





Habenaria roraimensis, Rolfe . . 


,, parviflora, Lindl 

to 5400 ft. 






„ Moritzii, Ridley 

to Upper slopes. 


Selenipedium Lindleyanum, Reichb. f. 

to 54(1(1 ft. 


Brocchinia eordylinoides, Baker .... 

to Ledge. 

Puya fl'iccosa. Morren .... 

at 6000 ft. 

to Summit. 



Connellia Augustce, N. E. Br 

„ Quelchii, N. E. Br 


Tillandsia rhodocincta, Baker 






_2 a 







~ 51 

« a 
a t, 


— ' .E 


It L. 


is a 











Nietneria corymbosa, Klotzsch &Eich. 

to Summit, 
to Summit. 

Tofieldia Schomburglciana, Oliver . . 


.Xiiris setigera, Oliver 

to Ledge. 


Upper slopes 
(? Ledge). 

„ wiUerioides, Oliver 

to 7300 ft. 

„ concinna, N. E. Br 


to Summit. 


Saxofredericia regaUs, Rob. Sehomb. 

to 5000 ft. 

Stegolepis guianensis, Klotzsch .... 

to Summit. 


at 5400 ft. 

to Upper slopes. 


Anthuriwn roraimense, X. E. Br. . . 

at 5400 ft. 


Papalantlms Schomburglii, Klotzsch 

to 5400 ft. 

„ flavescens, Koeru 

to Upper slopes. 





,, Roraimce, Oliver .... 

to Summit. 

„ fraternus, N. E. Br. . . 



Fimbristglis e.vilis, Roem. & Schult. . . 

to 5400 ft. 


, . 





KhyncJiospora stenophylla, Britton J. 

at 5400 ft. 



„ tenuis, Britton 

to 5400 ft. 






Lagenocarpus stellatus, C. B. Clarke 

(Cryptangiwm stellatum, Boeekl.) . 

Upper slopes. 

to Summit. 

„ angusta, X. E. Br 


Scleria Jiirtella, Sw 

to 540H ft. 


* * 






to 5400 ft. 








to 5400 ft. 








to 5400 ft. 







Arundinella brasiliensis, Raddi .... 

to 5400 ft. 









to 5400 ft. 





Panicum eligulatum, X. E. Br 


to 5400 ft. 



to Upper slopes. 



Arundo roraimeiisis, X. E. Br 


Am iidiiiiirin J, X. E. Br 


Chusquea linearis, X. E. Br 


to Upper slopes. 

Total of Spermatopiiyta 









f A'. .Fontawesiawa, Oliver iu Trans. Linn. Soc, ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 2S5, appears to be X. Seubertii. It is 
not X. Fontaiiesiana, Kunth. 

J Ii. capillacea, Oliver I. c. p. 287, not of Torrey (teste C. B. Clarke). 








•S 5P 

93 -1 

33 33 


93 S3 

■3 2 



__, 'Z. 

a s 
is 5 

t i 












Selaginella vernicosa, Baker 

to Summit. 

„ roraimensis, Baker .... 

at 5400 ft. 



to Upper slopes. 





N. &S. 

„ carolinianum, Linn. 

to Upper slopes. 








coiitu/iiHi,). Klotzseh 

to Summit. 



„ linifolium, Linn 

to Upper slopes. 







,, subulatum, Desv 

to 7200 ft. 







Gleichenia pubescens, 11. B. & K. 

to Upper slopes. 








to 5400 ft. 



Ahnjilii/ii bipinnatifida, Bakei .... 

5400 ft. 



at 5401 1 ft . 

to Summit. 






Bymenophyllum crispum, 11. B. & Iv. 

to Summit. 






,, defectum, Baker . . 

5000 ft. to Summit. 

polyanihos, Sw. . . 

In Summit. 









fucoides, Sw 

to CTpper slopes. 







,, mierocarpum, Hook. 

Upper slopes. 







„ serieeum, Sw 

to Summit. 







to Summit. 








to Upper slopes. 





„ roraimense, Jenman .. 


„ macilentum, V. d. Bosch 

to Upper slopes. 





to 541 mi It. 








„ pyxidiferum, Linn. . . 

to Upper slopes. 








Davallia Imrayana, Hook 

to Upper slopes. 
to Upper slopes. 



Lindsaya guianensis, Dryand 






„ stricter, Dryand 

to Summit. 







II iiiioleiiis renins. Prcsl 

to Tl'OO ft. 







Pteris aquilina, Linn 

to Summit. 







X. & s. 


„ incisa, Thnnb 

to 7200 ft. 








to 5400 ft. 


to Upper slopes. 






to Summit. 








to Summit. 









Asplt muni lunulatum, Sw 

to 7200 ft. 









to Upper slopes. 

to 5400 ft. 








,, serra, Langsd. & Fisch. . . 









to Summit. 







N. & S. 

„ denticulatum, Hook. . . 

to Summit. 







braehypodvm, Baker . . 

Upper slopes. 

„ Leprii a, -ii. Hook 

to 5400 ft. 



„ amplissimum, Hook. . . 

to Upper slopes. 



Nephrolepis cordifolia, Tresl 

to 5400 it. 








Polypodium marcfinellum, Sw 

tn Summit. 







„ ('mill, llii, Baker 


„ demeraranum. Baker .. 

Upper slopes. 

roraimi us, . Bakei . . . . 

Upper slopes. 

„ trifuvcatum, Linn 

to Upper slopes. 



to Summit. 



„ serndatum, Metf 

to Summit. 








Upper slopes. 



„ truncicola, Klotzseh . .. 

Upper slopes. 





monilifonm . Lag. . . . 

to Summit. 





., hptopodon, ('. 11. Wrighi 


to Upper slopes. 







Juan F. 


to Upper slopes. 







to 5400 ft. 







„ cultratum, W'illd 

to Upper slopes. 










. Brazil. 


oloinbia to 

enezuela and 

*. Indies. 



3 C 
— a 

f S 

1.1 World. 









FlLICES (cunt.). 

Polypodium xanthotrichwn, Elotzsch 

Upper slopes. 

,, capillar! . Desv 

to Upper slopes. 





Kalbreyi ri, Baker .... 

Upper slopes. 


rigi sa »■■>', Bory 

t" Summit. 







firmum, Klotesch 

Upper slopes. 




„ ,11, riii, nsi . Klotzsoh. . 





siil,.-:, ssili , linker 

Upper slopes. 


„ ,n, lanotrichum, linker . . 

at 5400 ft. 

loriceum, Linn 

to 7200 ft. 








,, iiuriiim, Linn 

lo 5400 ft. 









f , angustifolium, Sw 

to 5400 ft. 







Qyrtmogranimi i laphoglossoides, 

to Summit. 

,, cyclophylla, Baker . . 

Summit . 

„ flexuosa, Desv 

to Summit. 






„ Schomburgkiana, 

Upper slopes. 
Upper slopes. 

,. hirta, Desv 




Enterosora Campbellianum, Iiaker .. 


to Upper slopes. 







X. & 8. 


„ stipulata, Kunze . . 

Upper slopes, 
to Summit. 




Aerostichum latifolium, Sw 





squamosum, Sw 

to Upper slopes. 








„ teptoplilebium, Baker .. 

Upper slopes. 

„ muscosum, Sw 

to .",4011 ft. 





„ stf< nopti ris, Klotzsch 

at 5400 ft. 




„ decoratum, Kunze .... 

to 5400 ft. 




„ jii Uatum, Sw 

to Upper slopes. 






Schizcea dichotoma, Sw 

to ..400 ft. 





,, elegans, Sw 

to 5400 ft. 







. I,,, imia tomi ntosa, Sw 

to 5400 ft. 








Total of Ptkeidophtta .... 









Bryim: b. 

Dicranum longisetum, Hook 




Dicranodontium pulchroalare, Broth. 


Campylopus ehionophyttu.?, Mitt. . . 




,. atratus, Broth 


Leucobryv/m megalophyllum, Mitt. .. 







,, lawifolium, liroth 








Zygodon subdenticulatus, Hampe. . . . 



/•», in, -'in calvesu ns, Sehwaeg 








N. & S. 







Mniwn rostratum, Schrad 

to Ledge. 










Polytrichum aristiflorum, Mitt 

to 5401 1 ft. 


Wiacocarpus Humboldtii, Lindb 







ffookeria pilotrichelloides, liroth. 


to 5400 ft. 





Ectropothecium amabile, Mitt 

to Summit. 




'Iliiiiiiinm psi udoprotensum, Mitt. . . 



to 5400 ft. 










Sphagnum sanguinah, Warnsl 


„ /./• dium, Limpr 



X. A- S. 


M \KI IIA.M 1 \l 1. 1.. 










Aneura Schwaneckei, Steph 

„ altjoides, Steph 

,, roreiimensis, Steph 

,, Breutelii, Steph 

,, fucoides, Steph. (A. bipinnata, 


Metzgeria inflata, Steph 

,, hamata, Lindb 

Pedlavicinitis Wnllisii, Jack & Steph. 

Jamesoniella coloraia. Spruce 

Syzygiella Quekhii, Steph 

„ perfoliata, Spruce 

Plagioeldla area, Tayl 

„ gavana, Steph 

„ remotifolia, Harape & 


„ rutilans, Lindb 

„ adiantoides, Lindb 

Leioscyplvas fragilis, Jack & Steph. . 

Lophocolea Breutelii, Gottsehe .... 

Mastigobryum rorarmense, Steph. .. 

„ dissodontwn, Spruce . 

„ vincentinwn, Lehm. & 

,, Kriigiamtiii, Steph. . . 

„ yretcile, Harape & 


Blepharozia Roraimce, Mitt 

Micropti rygium grandistipulum, 


„ pterygophyllum, 


Lepidozia commutata, Steph 

Schisma juniperinum, Nees 

,, pensilis, Steph 

,, Durandii, Steph 

,, subedentatum, Steph 

Trichocolt a spliagnoides, Steph 

Scapania portoricensis, Hampo & 


/'/, urozia pareidolia, Jack 

Harpalejeunea tenax, Steph 

FrvJlaiiea mirabilis, Jack & Steph.. . 

,, atrata, Nees 

,, longicollis, Lindenb. & 













to Upper slopes. 






















Total of Brvophyta . 

Phoma Psammisice, Massee 

Eehinobotryum roseum, Massee . . . 
Stenophylium ericoet-onum, R. Br. . 
Macrosporiurn ramulosum, Sacc. . . . 

( 'apnodium fibroswm, Berk 

Rhipidonema membranaceum, Sacc. 
SplieeropJwra compressum, Achar. . 

Cladnnia rangiferina, Hoffm 

Parmelia dictyorhiza, Massee 

„ perforata, Achar 

Alectoria ochroleuca, Xyl 





17 31 














* , * 


a < 



I S 

N. &S. 

N. & S. 




N. & S. 







t In Trans. Linn. Soc, Bot. ser. II. ii. p. 29G. 


Schomburgks' journeys. 

Sir Robert II. Schomburgk, in Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc. x. 1810, pp. 190-242. 

Sir Robert II. Schomburgk, ' Twelve Views in the Interior of Guiana ' (London, 184.1). 

Sir Richard Schomburgk, ' Reisen in Britisch-Guiana ' (Leipzig, IS 17-18), ii. pp. 152-300; 

iii. pp. 1041-1104. 
Sir Richard Schomburgk, ' Botanical Reminiscences of British Guiana' (Adelaide, 1876). 
Sir Robert II. Schomburgk, in Verb. Gartenb. Ver. xv., 1841. 
G. Bentham, in Ann. Nat. Hist, ii.-iii. ; in Hooker's Journ. Hot. Li.— iv. j in Hooker's Loud. 

Journ. Bot. i.-vii. ; in Trans. Linn. Soc. xviii. & xxii. ; &c. 
J. F. Klotzsch, in Verb. Gartenb. Ver. xviii., 1817; in ' Linnrca,' xxiv. 1851, p. 1 ; &C. 
Various authors in Martius, ' Flora Brasiliensis ' (Leipzig, 1840-1900). 

Appun's journey. 

K. Appun, ' Unter den Tropen ' (Jena, 1871), ii. pp. 105-384. 

Brown and Sawkins's journey. 

C. B. Brown, 'Canoe and Camp-life, in Guiana,' 2nd edit. (London, 1877), pp. 118-124. 
J. G. Sawkins, in Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc. xv. 1870-71, p. 131. 

C. B. Brown and J. G. Sawkins, ' Report on the Physical, Descriptive and Economic Geology of 
British Guiana' (London, 1875), pp Gl-(j3. 

Boddam-Whetham and McTurk's journey. 

J. W. Boddam-Whetham, < Roraima and British Guiana' (London, 1879), pp. 204-25 I. 

ini Thurn and Perkins's journey. 

E. F. irn Thurn, in Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc. vii. 1885, pp. 497-521, and in 'Timehri/ iv. 1885, 

pp. 1-48 and 256-207. 
II. I. Perkins, in Proc. Roy. Geogr. Soc. vii. 1885, pp. 529-530. 
E. F. im Thurn, D. Oliver, and others in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. pp. 249-300; reprinted 

in 'Timehri,' v. 1886, pp. 145-223. 

Kromer's and Dressel's journeys. 
' Timehri,' n. s., i. 1887, p. 330. 

McConnell and Quelch's first journey. 

J. J. Quelch in ' Timehri,' n. s., viii. 1891, p. 381 ; ix. 1895, pp. 107-188. 





By N. E. Brown, A.L.S. (the Orchids by 11. A. Rolfe, A.L.S.). 


Hei.iamimiora nutans, Benth. in Proc. Linn. Soc. i. (1810), p. 53, and in Trans. Linn. 

Soc. xviii. (1840), p. 129, t. 2!); R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit. -Guiana, ii. p. 263, 

and iii. p. 1000 ; R. H. Schomb., Views in the Interior of Guiana, p. 15 ; Bot. Mag. 

t. 7093 ; El. des Serres, Ser. II. xi. (1875), p. 149, tt. 2216- 17 ; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. 

Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 271. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 78, 679 ; also collected on the lower 
slope in the " Eldorado Swamp " by all other collectors. — Endemic. 


Ionidium Ipecacuanha, Vent. Jard. Malm, sub t. 27. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell A' Quelch, 258. 

Alsodeia flavescens, Spreng. Syst. i. p. 806. 

Mazaruni River, 300 ft., McConnell fy Quelch, 715. 

Sauvagesia erecta, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. i. p. 203 ; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soe. Ser. II. Bot, 
ii. (1887), p. 271. 
Upper slopes and ledge of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f. Quelch, 7. Ireug Valley, 
McConnell & Quelch, 263. — Widely distributed in Tropical America. 

Sauvagesia Sprengelii, A. St. ILL in Mem. Mus. Par. xi. (1821), p. 1)7. 
Savannahs generally, McConnell 8f Quelch, 330. 

Leitgebia Imthurniana, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 27L t, 37a. 
Summit of Mount Roraima. McConnell fy Quelch, 97, 98, 316, 654. — Endemic. 


POIAGALA GLOCHIDIATA, H. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. V. p. 400. 

Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 38. — Widely distributed in 
Tropical America. 

Poly gala hygrophila, II. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. v. p. 395 ; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 271. 
Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell & Quelch, 39. -Eastern Tropical America 
from Panama to Paraguay. 


Polygala Timoutou, Aubl. PI. Gruian. ii. p. 737, t. 295; K. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.- 
( ruiana, iii. p. 1007. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell §,* Queloh, 100. [reng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 250. 

Polygala celosioides, Mart, ex A. W. Benn. in Mart. PI. Bras. \iii. pt. in. p. •T>. 
[reng Valley, McConnell §r Quelch, 223. 

Securidaca marginata, Benth. in Hook. journ. Bot. iv. (1842), p. 103. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell & Quelch, 157. 

Monnina CACTJMINA, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Polia oblonga, acuta vel obtusa, apiculata, 

exstipulata, glabra. Racemi densiflori, floribus breviter pedicellatis. Bractese 

lance-olatse, acuta*, floribus breviores. Alae ellipticie, glabrae, basi ciliatae. Carina 

glabra, ciliata. Petala lateralia utrinque pubescentia. Vagina staminea supra 

hirta. Fructus eompresso-elli|">soideus, exalatus, unilocularis, glaber. 

Stem subglabrous, or very thinly covered with very short hairs. Leaves about 2 in. 

long, f-1 in. broad, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute or obtuse and apiculatc, rather 

thin in the dried state, exstipulate. Racemes 3-4, terminal, 2-4 in. long, rather densely 

many-flowered. Bracts 2 lin. long, § lin. broad, lanceolate, acute, caducous. Pedicels 

i-1 lin. long. Dorsal sepal 1-J- lin. long, § lin. broad, ovate, acute, concave, ciliolate ; 

the two lower sepals similar but rather smaller, connate to their middle; lateral 

sepals or alae about 2} lin. long, 2 lin. broad, elliptic, obtuse, with incurved 

margins, glabrous, ciliate towards the base. Lower petal or keel 2| lin. long, 2 lin. broad, 

obscurely 3-crenulate at the apex, glabrous ciliate along the sides. Lateral petals 2-2^ 

lin. long, obliquely tapering from a broad base to an obtuse apex, adnate to the staminal 

tube, densely ciliate along the upper margin, pubescent along the middle of the outer 

side and more densely all over within. Staminal tube villose at the apex. Ovary elliptic, 

with a large unilateral gland at its base, glabrous ; style thickened upwards, slightly 

incurved. Fruit 3-3^ lin. long, about If lin. broad, elliptic, subacute, compressed, nol 

winged, 1 -celled, glabrous. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft. McConnell §r Quelch, 645. 

Allied to M. cestrifolia, H. B. & K., but differing in its much larger flowers. 

Krameria spartioides, Klotzsch, (\r O. Berg, in Bot. Zeit. xiv. (1850), p. 7<il. 
I reng Valley, McConnell & Quelch, 244, 268. 


Trigonia subcymosa, Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. ii. (1843), p. 373. 
[reng Valley, McConnell & Quelch, 222. 

Portulaca sedifolia, N. E. Brown, sp. ii. Caules bundles, diffusi. Folia parva, lineari- 
oblonga vel oblongo-lanceolata, breviter petiolata, axillis dense pilosa. Calyeis lobi 



late ovati, obtusi, apice inflexi, glabri. Petala calyce duplo longiora. Stamina 5. 
Stylus 3-fidus. Semina tuberculata. 

A small succulent herb, branching at the base, with branches 2-3 in. long, glabrous, 
with the exception of the tufts of long white hairs in the axils of the leaves and around 
the flowers. Leaves 1^-3 lin. long, -|-§ lin. broad, flattened, linear-oblong or oblong- 
lanceolate, obtuse, tapering at the base into a short petiole, glabrous. Flowers small. 
Sepals f lin. long, rather more than \ lin. broad, broadly ovate, obtuse, indexed at the 
apex, concave, not keeled on the back, glabrous. Petals lij lin. long, only seen in a 
withered state, apparently obtuse. Stamens 5, shorter than the petals. Style filiform, 
with 3 filiform stigmas. Upper half of the capsule broadly conical. Seeds \ lin. diam., 
tuberculate, the tubercles on the sides very much larger than those on the back, black. 

Ireng Valley, McConnell & Quelcli, 237. 

Allied to Portulaca parvula, A. Gray, but differing in its shorter leaves, fewer 
stamens, and larger and more coarsely tuberculate seeds. 


Ceusia Planchoniana, Engl. (?) in Mart. El. Bras. sii. pt. i. p. 131. 

Ivukenaam River, McConnell & Quelcli, 130. 

I am doubtful of my identification of this plant, and it may prove to be a new species, 
but the specimen only consists of three flowers and two leaves, all detached. They agree 
fairly well with the flowers and leaves of C. Planchoniana, with the exception that the 
leaves are rather more obtuse and have stouter petioles. 


Ternstiuemia Schomburgkiana, Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. ii. (1813), p. 362; 
Appun, Unter den Tropen, ii. p. 292. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell & Quelcli, 138. 

Boxnetia sessilis, Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. ii. (1843), p. 363 ; Appun, Unter 
den Tropen, ii. p. 292 ; R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit. -Guiana, ii. pp. 218, 251, and iii. 
p. 1093. 
Irengwatong Creek in the Ireng Valley, McConnell & Quelcli, 269, 322. — Only known 

from this western part of British Guiana. 

Boxnetia Roraim^e, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 272, t. 37. f. B. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell & Quelcli, 84., 664. — Endemic. According to 
Mr. Quelcli, " this is the commonest and most widely spread species on the summit, 
rising to 35-40 ft. iu height, Avhere sheltered." 

Archtivea multiflora, Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. ii. (1843), p. 363 ; R. Schomb. 
Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, ii. p. 218, and iii. p. 1093. 
Kotinga Valley, 3000 ft. McConnell & Quelcli, 162; Ireng Valley, McConnell & Quelcli, 


Mahuria exstipulata, Bentli. in Hook. Loud. Journ. Hot. ii. (1843), p. 365. 
Silima Crock in the Irony Valley, McConnell cC- Quelch, 270. 


Siba, sp. Specimen insufficient for determination, but apparently a new species. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell A - Quelch, 207. 

Pavonia spectosa, II. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. v. p. 281. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 170. Karona Falls on the Ireng River, 
McConnell fy Qiielch, 228. Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 257. 

Pavonia cancellata, Cav. Diss. iii. p. 135. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell §' Quelch, 248. 

Eugosia campestris, Bentli. in Hook. Journ. Bot. iv. (1842), p. 120. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 213, 239. 


Helicteres guazum^efolia, H. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. v. p. 304. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell S,- Quelch, 212. 

Melochia meliss.efolia, Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. iv. (1842), p. 129. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 231. 

Melochia hirsuta, Cav. Diss. vi. p. 323. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell §• Quelch, 255. 

"VValtheria viscosissima, A. St. Hil. El. Bras. Mer. i. p. 150. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 168. 


Byrsonima verbascifolia, Rich, ex Juss. in Ann. Mus. Par. xviii. (1S11), p. 481. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell §• Quelch, 226. 

Heteropteris ole.efolia, Griseb. in Linnsea, xxii. (1849), p. 19. 
II. dapfmoides. Griseb. in R. Schomb. Reiscn in Brit. -Guiana, iii. p. 1090. 
Upper slopes of Mount Boraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 21, 319. — Endemic. 

Tetrapteris squarrosa, Griseb. in Mart. El. Bras. xii. pt. I. p. 87. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell §■ Quelch, 241. 

Oxalis bistans, A. St. Hil. El. Bras. Mer. i. p. 115. 
O. Schomburgkiana, Prog, in Mart. Fl. Bras. xii. pt. n. p. 500. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 202. 



P(EC1Landka RETUSA, Tul. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. III. viii. (1847), p. 342. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell & Quelch, 145, 107. Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 

Ilex apicidens, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plato 1, tigs. 1-6). Fratex glaber. Folia parva, 
coriacea, elliptica, obtusa vel emarginata, basi obtusa, apice denticulata. Cyma? 
axillares vel ad apices ramulorum aggregate, 2-3-florye, vel flores solitarii, glabra?. 
Calyx 4-lobns, lobis brevissimis rotundatis. Petala 1, elliptica vel suborbiculata, 
obtusissima. Stamina 4. 

A glabrous sbrub ; brandies tuberculated with the scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves 
moderately crowded, coriaceous ; petiole J- 2 lin. long; blade 5-11 lin. loug, 1-7 lin. 
broad, elliptic or somewhat obovate. obtusely rounded or emarginate and with 5-9 small 
teeth at the apex, obtusely rounded or somewhat cuneate at the base, entire along tin- 
sides, with slightly revolute margins, not punctate-dotted beneath; primary lateral 
veins about 4 on each side, uniting in broad loops, impressed above, prominent beueath ; 
stipules minute, about J lin. long, subulate. Flowers either solitary or in 2-3-flowered 
pedunculate cymes in the axils of the leaves, or crowded into a small, terminal, hemi- 
spherical corymb |-f in. diam. Peduncles H-3 lin. long, glabrous. Pedicels of tin- 
solitary flowers 2-3| lin. long, of those in cymes 1-2| lin. long, glabrous. Calyx about 
J- lin. long, cupular, shortly l-lobed, lobes broadly rounded, obtuse, glabrous. Petals 4, 
li-li lin. long, Pj-lij lin. broad, elliptic or suborbiculate, very obtuse, concave, glabrous. 
Stamens 4, a little shorter than the petals. Pistillode globose, glabrous. Female 
flowers not seen. 

Summit of Mount Roraima. 8600 ft.. McConnell & Quelch, 634. 

Allied to 1. obcordata, Sw., but differing in the apically toothed leaves, with the midrib 
and veins much more prominent beneath. 

Ilex retusa, lvlotzsch, in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1097 ; Oliver, in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 273. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, Mr Council & Quelch, 655. Collected by Sohomburgk on 
the bank of a mountain-stream in the vicinity of Roraima. — Endemic. 


Cyrilla antillana, Michx. Fl. Bor.-Am. i. p. 158. 

Stachyanthemum Schomburgkii, Klotzsch, in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1097, ex 
Loesener, in Engler & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. iii. pt. 5, p. 459. 

Kotinga Valley, 3000 ft., McConnell & Quelch, 193. Ireng Valley, McConnell fy 
Quelch, 203. 

Cyrilla brevifolia, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (PI. 1, tigs. 7-16.) Folia lanceolato-elliptiea 
vel obovato-elliptica vel lanceolata, obtusa vel acuta, glabra, rigide coriacea, costa 
infra vix prominente. Racemi 1-2 poll, longi, dense nmltiflori. Sepala lanceolata, 
acuminata, glabra. Petala lanceolata, involuto-acuminata, glabra. — C. antillana, 
Michx., var. brevifolia, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887) p. 273. 


Leaves crowded towards the ends of the branches, glabrous; petiole 2-2. 1 , lin. Long; 
Made f-1 ', in. long, l-s lin. broad, lanceolate-elliptic or slightly obovate-elliptic and 

obtuse, or occasionally lanceolate and acute, sometimes minutely apiculate, rigidly 
coriaceous, entire, shining and smooth or coarsely pitted above, coarsely pitted between 
the veinlets beneath; midrib impressed above, prominent and keeled beneath at the 
basal part only, not raised above the general surface in the apical half. Racemes 
1-2 in. long, 3-4 lin. diam., densely many-flowered, erect, glabrous. Bracts 1^-2 lin. 
long, subulate, very acute. Pedicels | 1 lin. long, ascending curved, glabrous. 
Sepals 1-1 4 lin. long, acuminate from an ovate base, glabrous. Petals 1^-1| lin. long, 
S lin. broad, lanceolate, acuminate from the margins being inrolled, subacute when 
expanded, glabrous. Stamens about § as long as the petals. Ovary oblong, irregularly 
wrinkled in the dried state. 2-3-celled, glabrous; style very short and stout; stigmas 
2-3. Ovules 2, pendulous from the apex of each cell. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., im Thurn, 334; McConnell 8f Quelch, 88, 
318, 638. 

This species differs from Cyrilla antillana, Michx., in having smaller and more rigidly 
coriaceous leaves, with the midrib not prominent beyond the middle on the underside, 
shorter and denser racemes, and longer and more acuminate sepals and petals. 


Crotalarta anagyroides, H. 13. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. vi. p. t04. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell fy Quelch, 1(59. 

Tephrosia abtjnca, Benth. in Ann. Nat. Hist. Ser. I. iii. (1839), p. 432. 
Kotinga Valley, McDonnell 8f Quelch, 131, 199. 

Clitoria guyanensis, Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. ii. (1858), p. 40. 

Kotinga Valley, McDonnell 8f Quelch, 155 ; Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 209. 

DlOCLEA GTJIANENSIS, Benth. in Ann. Wien. Mus. ii. (1838), p. 134. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 158. 

Phaseou s semierectus, Linn. Mant. i. p. 100, var. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 171. 

Phaseoi/US LASIOCARPUS, Mart. (?) ex Benth. in Ann. Wien. Mus. ii. (1838), p. 1 10, 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 177. 

Eriosema crinitum, Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. ii. (1840), p. 62. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell ^ Quelch, 186. 

Dipteryx oppositifolia, Willd. Sp. PL iii. p. 910. 

Arabapu River, McConnell Sf Quelch, 143, 303. Roraima Range, 3500 ft., McConnell 
8f Quelch, 717. — Guiana and Brazil. 


Cassia insignis, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Eoliola bijuga, arapla, oblique oblonga vel 

elliptico-oblonga, breviter obtuse acuminata, venosa, glandula magna inter inferiora. 

Stipulae foliaeeae, falcato-lanceolatae. Bacernilaxesubcorymbosi. Pedicellielongati. 

Stamina perfecta 7 ; staminodia 3. Antherae perfects suba3quales, 3 inferiores 

breviter rostratse. 
Leaves large, bijugate; petiole below the basal pair of leaflets, f-1 in. long, minutely 
puberulous, becoming nearly glabrous ; leaflets obliquely oblong or elliptic-oblong, 
shortly and obtusely acuminate, obliquely rounded at the base, glabrous to the eye, but 
with a minute scattered pubescence as seen under a lens, with the veins and veinlets 
very conspicuous on both sides ; the basal pair 1^-3| in. long, f-lf in. broad ; the terminal 
pair 1-9 lin. distant, 2f-4j in. long, 1-2 in. broad; gland lh lin. long, 1 lin. thick, erect, 
ovoid, obtuse, placed between the basal pair of leaflets. Stipules leafy, §-£ in. long, 
2-4 lin. broad, falcate-lanceolate, obtuse or acute, tapering at the base into a curved 
petiole. Bacemes loosely subcorymbose at the ends of the branches, solitary or in pairs 
from the axils of the uppermost reduced leaves, H-3 in. long, 7-14-flowered, softly and 
minutely pubescent. Pedicels 1-Tf in. long, pubescent. Sepals about 5^ lin. long, \ in. 
broad, obovate, obtuse, puberulous, minutely ciliate towards the apex. Petals 8-11 lin. 
long, 4-8 lin. broad, elliptic or elliptic-obovate, very distinctly clawed, minutely 
puberulous on both sides. Stamens with 7 subequal perfect and 3 reduced abortive 
anthers, 3 of the perfect anthers shortly beaked. Ovary linear, curved, densely pubescent 
with yellowish adpressed hairs. Legume not seen. 

On the upper slopes of Mount Boraima, McDonnell 8f Quelch, 23. 

Allied to C. latifolia, G. F. W. Mey., but may be at once distinguished by its 
narrow-based, petiolate stipules, and much longer pedicels. 

Cassia Apoucouita, Aubl. PI. Guian. i. p. 379, t. 140. 

Mazaruni Paver, 300 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 716. 

This appears to be the true plant of Aublet, which is easily distinguished from the 
Brazilian plants described by Bentham as C. Apoucouita, by its narrowly winged petiole 
and differently shaped leaflets. The C. Apoucouita of Bentham appears to me to 
include 2 or 3 perfectly distinct species. 

Cassia hispidtjla, Vahl, Eclog. Am. iii. p. 10. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 170. Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 246. 

Cassia polystachya, Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. ii. (1840), p. 77 ; B. Schomb. Beisen 
in Brit.-Guiana, ii. pp. 187, 207, and iii. p. 1207. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 229. Upper slopes of Mount Boraima, McConnell 
8f Quelch, 317. — Only known from this western corner of British Guiana. 

Cassia uniplora, Spreng. Xeue Entdeck. i. p. 291. 

Kotinga Valley, near Boraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 133. Kotinga Valley, McConnell 
Sf Quelch, 151. Savannahs generally, McConnell §• Quelch, 320. 


Cassia Koraim,e, Benth. in Trans. linn. Soc. xxvii. (1871), p. 571; Oliver in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. Ser. II. ii. (1887) p. 27:5. 
Kotinga Valley, McCormell fy Quelch, 140. Roraima Range, 3500 It., McConnell 8f 
Quelch, 719. — Only known IVoin this region. 

Mimosa microcephala, Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Sp. PI. iv. p. 103!). 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 173. 

Pithecolobium ferrugineum, Benth. in Hook. Loud, .lourn. Bot. iii. (1814), p. 20s ; 
R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1038. 

Upper and lower slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 10. Roraima 
Range, 3500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 712. — Endemic. 

The fruit described by Bentham under P. ferrugmeum in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. 
(1875) p. 584, does not belong to that species, but to some totally different plant. 


Moquilea Turiuva, Hook. f. in Mart. Ft. Bras. xiv. pt. II. p. 25. 
Savannahs generally, McConnell Sf Quelch, 308. 

HlRTELLA AMERICANA, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1, p. 34. 
Savannahs generally, McConnell Sf Quelch, 300. 

Rubus ertic.efolius, Poir. Encycl. vi. p. 246. 

Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell §• Quelch, 11. — Widely dispersed 
throughout Tropical America. 

It is uncertain whether 11. Schomburglcii, Klotzscb, in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.- 
Guiana, iii. p. 1102, is a synonym of this species or identical with B. guyouensis, Focke, 
in Brem. Abb. iv. (1874), p. 160, as no description is given by Klotzscb, and Schomburgk 
collected both species. 


Weinmannia guyanensis, Klotzscb, in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 108'J ; 
Engler, in Linnsea, xxxvi. (LS70), p. 605; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. 
Bot. ii. (1887), p. 273. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell fy Quelch, 92, 636. — Endemic. 
The foliage of this plant is somewhat variable. In some examples the leaves are all 
trifoliolate, this being the typical form ; in others they all consist of one leaflet only, 
whilst others have trifoliolate and unifoliolate leaves on the same branch. 

Weinmannia fagarioides, H. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. vi. p. 54. 

W. glabra, Linn. f. var. ?, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 273. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 639. — Also on the Andes of Peru, 
Bolivia, and Ecuador, from 6000-10,000 ft. elevation. 

The specimens collected by im Thurn upon Roraima have longer leaves, with more 

second series. — botany, vol. vi. e 


numerous and narrower leaflets and longer and more lax racemes than those of the 
present collections ; hut I helieve both forms belong to TVeiitmannia fagarioides, H. B. 
& K.. which seems to be somewhat variable in the characters mentioned. 


Dbosera communis, A. St. Hil. PI. Rem. Bres. p. 267 ; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 273. 
D. Roraima, Klotzscb, in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-G-uiana, iii. p. 1090. 

Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McGonnell 8f Quelch, 42. Summit of Mount 
Roraima, McGonnell §/• Quelch, 85, 681. Arabapu River, McGonnell 8f Quelch, 154. — 
Widely distributed in eastern South America, westward to New Granada, and southward 
to Paraguay. 


Campomanesia ccetanea, Berg, in Mart. El. Bras. xiv. pt. i. p. 44. 
Kanuku Mountains, McGonnell 8f Quelch, 275. 

Myktus myricoides, H. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. vi. p. 131, t. 539. 

M. sp. nor. aff. myricoides, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 273. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 195.— Also in the Andes of Colombia 
up to 11,000 ft. elevation. 

This was considered to be a new species by Prof. Oliver, but I cannot distinguish it by 
any specific character from 31. myricoides, H. B. & K. 

Mybtus roraimknsls, N. E. Brown, sp. n. < )mnino glabra. Eolia parva, anguste oblonga 
vel oblongo-lanceolata, obtusa, coriacea, utrinque glanduloso-punctata, supra nitida, 
rugulosa. Flores axillares. Petala orbicularia, glanduloso-punctata. Stamina 
(|iiain petala breviora. Ovarium 3-loculare. 
A branching shrub, quite glabrous in all parts. Leaves small, 1-6 lin. long, including 
the £-1 lin. long petiole, li-3^ lin. broad, usually narrowly oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 
occasionally ovate, obtuse, rounded at the base, rigidly coriaceous, shining and rugulose 
above in the dried state, pale beneath, gland-dotted on both sides. Flowers axillary, 
solitary. Pedicels H-3 lin. long, bibracteolate at the apex. Bracteoles H-I4 lin. long, 
^-h lin. broad, linear or linear-lanceolate, obtuse, coriaceous, gland-dotted. Calyx-tube 
I lin. long, hemispherical; lobes about 1 lin. long, |-| lin. broad, oblong or ovate- 
oblong, obtuse, gland-dotted. Petals about 2 lin. long and broad, suborbicular, very 
obtuse, gland-dotted. Stamens shorter than the petals. Ovary 3-celled ; ovules several 
in each cell. Berry drooping, globose, about 3 lin. diam., crowned with the calyx-lobes. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 635, 641. 
This species somewhat resembles M. myricoides, H. B. & K., but differs in having 
perfectly glabrous stems, smaller, narrower, and less acute leaves, shorter pedicels, and 
smaller calyx-lobes. 

Lecythis venusta, Miers, in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxx. (1874), p. 214. 
Mazaruni River, 200 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 713. 



Micromcia bryanthoides, Oliver, in Tiaiis. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Hot. ii. | L887), p. 2 74 
t. 39. f. B; Cogn. in DC. Monog. Phan. \ ii. p. 49. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell A' Quelck, 630. — Endemic. 

llllYNCUANTUERA GRANDI1 I.OKA. DC. I Tod. iii. p. 107. 

Ireng Valley, McConnell A- Quelch, 2:50. 

Sipuanthera MICROLICIOIDES, Cogn. in Mart. IT. Bras. xiv. pt. in. p. 199 ; and in DC. 
Monog. Phan. vii. p. 113. 
Meisneriu cordifolia, Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. ii. (1840), p. 299; R. Scliornl). Reisen in Brit.- 

Guiaua, iii. p. 1101. 
M. mici-olicioides, Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. III. xii. (1849), p. 204; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 

Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 274. 
Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 8. Kotinga Valley, McConnell 
8f Quelch, 182. — Apparently endemic in the Roraima region. 

Desmoscelis villosa, Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Se'r. III. xiii. (1850), p. 30. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 195. 

Macairea aspera, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 2.) Folia oblonga, ohtusa, supra scaberrima, 
subtus appresse rufo-toinentosa. Calyx appresse pubescens et glandulosus. Petala 
obovato-oblonga, obtussisima. glauduloso-ciliata. Staminum filamenta superne 
glandulosa. Ovarium superne dense glandulosum, stylo parce glanduloso. 
A branching shrub; elotbed on the young shoots, branches of the panicle, pedicels 
and calyx with rather long, rust-coloured, adpressed hairs. Leaves opposite; 
petiole 4-6 lin. long, pubescent like the stems ; blade 1|~ 3 in. long, 8-17 lin. broad, 
oblong, obtuse, or shortly and stoutly apiculate, cuneately rounded into the petiole 
at the base, coriaceous, 3-nerved, with the lateral nerves close to the revolute margin, 
scabrid with minute, conical, hair-tipped tubercles on the upper surface, tomentose 
beneath with a dense adpressed pubescence of rust-coloured hairs. Panicles 4-6 in. 
long, 2-3| in. broad, many-flowered. Pedicels 1-2| lin. long, minutely bibracteolate in 
the middle. Calyx with sessile glands mingled with the hairs outside ; tube campanulate. 
H lin. long ; lobes \h lin. long, deltoid, acuminate. Petals 3-4 lin. long, 2^-3 lin. broad, 
oblong-ovate, very obtuse, minutely gland-ciliate, glabrous. Stamens glandular on the 
apical part of the filaments. Anthers with the connective dilated at the base into a 
cordate-orbicular shield. Ovary free, densely covered with glands on the upper part ; 
style filiform, sparsely glandular. 

Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell A' Quelch, 31. 

Another specimen (no. 24, McConnell 8f Quelch), collected at the same place as no. 31. 
is identical with it in all particulars excepting the anthers, in which the portion of the 
connective between the pollen-cells and the dilated base is very much longer than in 31, 

e 2 


as shown in figs. 6-7, but I cannot consider this vai-iation of sufficient importance to 
separate the two specifically. 

Allied to Macairea ihyrsiflom, DC, and 31. albiflora, Cogn. ; differing in the very 
much rougher upper surface and different indumentum of the lower surface of the leaves 
and in the stouter anthers. M. albiflora, Cogn., according to Spruce's label, has purple 
flowers, not white as described by Cogniaux. 

Macairea pachyphylla, Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. ii. (1840), p. 292 ; B. Schomb. 

Beisen in Brit. -Guiana, iii. pp. 1100, 1192 ; Cogn. in DC. Monog. Phan. vii. 

p. 178. 
Kotinga Valley, McDonnell 8f Quelch, 181. — Apparently endemic to the vicinity 
of Boraima. 

TiBOiCHiNA fraterna, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Folia anguste elliptica, utrinque nequaliter 

subacuta, 3-nervia, subtus appresse squamosa, supra striolata, et marginibus et 

secundum lineas duas inter nervos squamosa. Bracteie libera?, oblonga?, obtusse. 

Calyx appresse squamosus, 5-lobus, tubo cylindrico quam lobis longiore. Petala 

elliptico-obovata, unguiculata, glanduloso-ciliata. 

Branchlets densely clothed with imbricating, lanceolate, acuminate, brownish scales 

about A lin. long, those at the nodes about twice as long and more acuminate. Leaves 

spreading; petiole 1-1^ lin. long, scaly; blade ^-1 in. long, 1-6 lin. broad, narrowly 

elliptic, about equally acute or suhacute at both ends, apiculate, 3-nerved, the underside 

clothed with adpressed acuminate scales, those on the nerves much larger than the rest, 

the upper surface finely striate, with a longitudinal row of minute scales near each of the 

lateral nerves and along the margins. Cymules 2-3-flowered, subsessile or with peduncles 

up to 3i lin. long, axillary and terminal, forming a terminal inflorescence 1-2 in. long, 1 in. 

broad, clothed to the tips of the calyx-lobes with pale, rosy-tinted acuminate scales. Bracts 

free, 2-4 lin. long, about 1J lin. broad, oblong, obtuse, resembling reduced leaves; bracteoles 

smaller, thinner, more glabrous, free, ciliate with long hair-like scales. Pedicels very short, 

scarcely 1 lin. long. Calyx-tube 3 lin. long and about li lin. diam., cylindric-campanu- 

late ; lobes 2 lin. long, 1\ lin. broad at the base, whence they gradually taper in a nearly 

straight line to an acute point, erect or very slightly spreading, glabrous inside, ciluite. 

Petals 7 lin. long, 3f. lin. broad, elliptic-obovate, very obtuse, clawed, minutely ciliate 

with gland-tipped hairs, and with a few long simple hairs at the apex, otherwise glabrous. 

Stamens 10, unequal, glabrous ; the longer anthers 5 lin. long, the shorter 4 lin. long, all 

attenuate to a subulate point, opening by one terminal pore; connective bifid at its 

insertion on the filament. Ovary free, oblong, densely covered with hair-like scales ; 

style slender, glabrous. 

Upper slopes of Mount Boraima, McConnell fy Quelch, 17. 

A very distinct species, which, according to the arrangement of Cogniaux, I think 
should be placed in the section Lepidotce, although it bears very little resemblance to the 
only two species [T. lepidota, Baill., and T. paleacea, Cogn.) at present placed under that 
section. It has much more resemblance to T. Spniceana, Cogn., and T. aspera, Aubl., 


but the free (not connate) bracts and bractcoles at once separate it from the section to 
which tlioy belong. 

Tiboi china lasiophylla, Cogn. in Mart. PI. Bras. xiv. pt. in. p. 297; and in DC. 
Monog. Phan. vii. p. 270. 
Pterolepis lasiophylla, Triana, in Trims. Linn. Soe. xxviii. (1871), p. 10; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Ser. II. Hot. ii. (1887), p. :>7l. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell fy Quelch, 183, 197. Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 
205. Skrpe of Mount Roraima, at 5400 ft. im Thurn, 59. — Only known from the 
above localities. 

Tibol china aspkra, Aubl. PI. Guian. i. p. 4i6, t. 177 ; R. Schomb. Rcisen in Brit.- 
Guiana, iii. pp. 1100, 1191. 
Pleroma tibouchinum, Triana, in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxviii. (1871), p. 45, t. 3; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. 

Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 271. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell $• Quelch, 217. — Widely sjiread in Tropical South America, 
extruding westward to Colombia and Pern. 

Marcetia taxifolia, DC. Prod. iii. p. 121; P. Schomb. Reisen in Brit. -Guiana, ii. 
p. 216, and iii. p. 1100 ; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot, ii. (1887), p. 273. 

Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 13, 20; im Thwrn, 68; 
Appun, 1114, 1153. Kotinga Valley near Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 149. 

With the exception of the above localities, this species is only known from Brazil, 
where it is a common and widely spread plant. 

Marcetia jcniperina, DC. Prod. iii. p. 125 ; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. 
ii. (1887), p. 274. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 86, 644. — Also in Venezuela at 
Cumana and Merida. 

Ch/Etolepis anisandra, Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. III. xiv. (1850), p. 140 ; Cogn. in 
DC. Monog. Phan. vii. p. ] 71. 
On the face of the cliff of Mount Roraima, at 7000-8000 ft., McConnell 8f Q/telch, 
22. — Endemic. 

MonociE-ETUM Bonplandii, Naud. in Ann. Sci. Nat. Ser. III. xiv. (1850), p. 51 ; 
Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot, ii. (1887), p. 274; Cogn. in DC. Monog. 
Phan. vii. p. 393. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell A Quelch, 189. — Also in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, 
and Peru. 

Miconia holosericea, DC. Prod. iii. p. 181. 

M. albicans, Steud. Norn. ed. 2, ii. p. 139. 

Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 28. — Throughout Tropical 
America from Mexico to Paraguay. 


Miconia tinifolia, Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. III. xvi. (1851), p. 225. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 191. Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 
§• Quelch, 633.— Also in Venezuela. 


Cuphea gracilis, II. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. vi. p. 199, var. media, Koehne, in Mart. 
PI. Bras. xiii. pt. II. p. 284. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 225. 


Jesseea longifolia, DC. in Mem. Soc. Phys. Genev. ii. pt. n. (1824), p. 141. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 20S, 214, 227. 


Tukkera uemifolia, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1. p. 271. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell fy Quelch, 174. Ireng Valley. McConnell 8f Quelch, 250, 

Tuknera velutina, Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. iv. (1812). p. 116. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 240. 

PnuQUETA guianensis, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Perennis, caulibus simplicibus, pilis stellatis 
cum setulis intermixtis tomentosa. Folia petiolata, anguste vel oblongo-lanceolata, 
obtusa, obtuse dentata, dense tomentosa. Plores axillares, solitarii. Pedicelli 
4-10 lin. longi, supra medium articulati. Petala purpurea ?, glabra. Fructus 
globosus, dense appresse pubescens. Semina oblonga, reticulato-foveolata. 
A perennial herb growing to about 1 ft. high. Stems several from the same root- 
stock, rather slender, usually simple, tomentose with a short down of stellate hairs 
intermingled with longer spreading bairs. Leaves petiolate ; petiole 1-2 lin. long, blade 
i-1 in. long, 1^-4 lin. broad, narrowly oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, obtusely 
3-6-toothed on each side, densely stellate tomentose on both sides. Flowers axillary, 
solitary. Pedicels 1-10 iin. long, jointed above the middle, stellate-tomentose. Calyx 
3-4^ lin. long, stellate-tomentose outside; tube about 1 lin. lonn', shortly obconical, 
lobes 2-3J lin. long, 1-1^ lin. broad, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, acute. Petals much 
longer than the calyx, o'hovatc, glabrous, with a fringed scale at their base, apparently 
purple. Stamens about 2} lin. long, with glabrous filaments. Ovary ovoid, densely 
adpressed-pubescent, not tubercled ; styles 2 lin. long, with a few scattered hairs or 
almost glabrous; stigmas dilated. Capsule globose, about 2 lin. diam., 3-valved, densely 
covered with adpressed, rather silky hairs. Seeds 1 lin. long, oblong, rather coarsely 
pitted, pale reddish brown. 

British Guiana ; without precise locality, Appun, 1858. Ireng Valley, McConnell § 
Quelch, 264. 
Allied to P. Duarteana, Urb. 


PlKIQUETA VILLOSA, Aubl. PI. (Juian. i. p. 298, 1. 117. 
P. cistoides, Mey. ex Steud. Nom. ed. 2, ii. p. 34 I. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell \- Quelch, 178. 


Passiflora Quelchii, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 3.) Frutex vel arbor, glaber. Folia 
petiolata, cuneato-oblonga, acuta vel obtusissima, midiilata, coriacea ; petiolus apice 
biglandulosus. Stipulse minutoe, subulatae, decidual. Cirrhi nulla. Flores in 
racemum abbret datum dispositi, glabri. Calycis tubus elongatus, cylindricus. Sepala 
petalis subconformia, oblongo-lauceolata, obtusa. Corona faucialis nni serial is, 
multipartita, scgrnentis complanatis prope apicem dilatatis oblique acuminatis; 
corona interior e tubo versus basin emergens, multipartita, segmentis complanatis 
Shrubby or arborescent, not climbing; branches woody, glabrous. Leaves simple, 
entire, very coriaceous, 2-1 lin. distant, spreading, glabrous ; petiole 4-6 lin. long, 
moderately stout, with two large sessile glands at the apex ; blade :}-5 in. long, §- 1 \ in. 
broad, cuneately oblong, gradually tapering from f the way up in a slightly curved line 
to an acute base, shortly acute or very obtuse and slightly emarginate with an apiculus 
in the notch, with strongly undulated margins ; primary lateral veins 12-15 on each side 
of the midrib, very spreading, uniting close to the margin in a series of broad loops ; 
secondary veins much reticulated, all prominent on both sides. Stipules minute, 
subulate, very deciduous. Tendrils none. Flowers in short racemes or clusters, 
probably on the older parts of the branches; axis of the inflorescence §-§ in. long, 
several-tiowered, glabrous. Pedicels 1-2 lin. long, glabrous. Calyx-tube about 1 in. 
long, H-2 lin. diain. in the dried state, cylindric, slightly enlarged at the mouth, 
glabrous; the lobes 10-12 lin. long, 2^-JU lin. broad, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or 
subacute. Petals similar to the calyx-lobes and of about the same size. Corona in two 
series ; one placed towards the bottom of the calyx-tube, consisting of numerous linear- 
falcate, acute, erect filaments about 14 lin. long; the other at the mouth of the tube, 
consisting of numerous flattened, somewhat hatchet-shaped segments rather more than 
\ in. long, with the dilated part slightly toothed and dorsally produced into a short point. 
Gynophore nearly 14 in. long, terete or perhaps sulcate at the base, glabrous. Filaments 
of the stamens 2 lin. long. Ovary oblong, 9-striate; styles 2 lin. long, stigmas capitate. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Qnelch, 207. 

A very distinct species, easily distinguished from all the others of shrubby habit by its 
cuneately oblong, undulated leaves, shortly racemose flowers, and long calyx-tube, besides 
other characters. 


Didymopanax uugostjm, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Eolia 3-foliolata, foliolis ellipticis vel 

elliptico-oblongis utrinque obtusis, rigide coriaceis, supra glabris rugosis, subtus 

dense tomentosis. Umbelhe composite, longe pedunculatse, fulvo-tomentosae, 

multiflorae. Petala ovata, acuta. Drupa immatura valde compressa, suborbiculata. 


Leaves digitately trifoliolate ; petiole stout, j in. thick, tomentose, broken in the only 
specimen seen and about 3^ in. long ; leaflets rigidly coriaceous, above glabrous and 
rugose, with a narrow prominent midrib and impressed veins and veinlets, beneath 
tomentose on the very stout prominent midrib and the primary veins, arid covered with a 
dense blanket-like tawny tomenturn between them ; the lateral pair 3J-4 in. long, 2J-2f in. 
broad, elliptic, obtuse at both ends, mucronulate, with stout petiolules about 2 lin. long ; 
the terminal leaflet 4f in. long, 2| in. broad, elliptic-oblong, slightly emarginate at the 
obtuse apex, mucronulate, with a stout petiole 4 lin. long. Umbel very compound, 6-8- 
rayed, many -flowered, 2f-3A in. diam., with a stout, more or less flattened peduncle 4-7 in. 
long, 2-3 lin. thick, everywhere, to the outside of the petals, densely covered with a 
tawny tomenturn, becoming greyish with age. Secondary umbels 6-7-rayed, some of the 
rays bearing a single flower, others dividing into tertiary umbels, some of which again 
divide in a similar manner, forming 2- 1-flowered umbels of a fourth order. Bracts and 
bracteoles suborbicular, about J-l lin. diam. Pedicels li-2 lin. long, stout, not jointed. 
Calyx-limb shortly cupular, 5-toothed ; teeth J-£ lin. long, deltoid, acute. Bud globose. 
Petals 5, about f lin. long, and nearly as broad, deltoid-ovate, acute, rather thick, 
glabrous within. Stamens 5, not longer than the petals. Ovary 2-celled; styles 2, 
somewhat flattened, divergent in young fruit, which is suborbicular in outline and 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft, McConnell 8f Quelch, 663. 

A most distinct species, in general habit more like Didymopcmax Spruceamm, Seem., 
than any other ; but the very thick rigid leaves, rugose above and tomentose beneath, 
at once distinguish it from that and all others. 

Sciadophylltjm tmbellatum, N. E. Brown, sp. ii. Folia digitata, foliolis 6-8 petiolu- 

latis oblongo-lanceolatis vel oblanceolato-oblongis obtuse acutis basi cuneatis 

supra glabris subtus tomento appresso pallido vestitis. Umhella? composite, 

longissime pedunculatse, multiflora?. Petala ovata, acuta. Fructus immaturus 

5-angularis, compressus. 

Leaves digitately 6-8-f oliolate ; petiole 4-6 in. long, l|-2 lin. thick, glabrous; leaflets 

coriaceous, unequal, 2^-6 in. long, excluding the 2-7 lin. long petiolules, 1-2^ in. broad, 

oblong-lanceolate or oblanceolate-oblong, obtusely pointed at the apex, cuneate at the 

base, entire or very slightly repand, slightly rcvolute along the margins, glabrous above, 

with a thin layer of pale close tomenturn beneath ; midrib prominent on both sides, 

stouter beneath ; primary lateral veins 9-16 on each side of the midrib, rather slender 

and not very prominent. Umbel compound, 2-3 in. diam., ou a peduncle 9-12 in. long, 

2\ lin. thick ; rays numerous, unequal, i-lj in. long, f-1 lin. thick. Bracts minute, 

rounded. Secondary umbels 10-16-flowered. Pedicels 1-Lf lin. long. Calyx-limb 

annular, entire or very minutely 5-toothed. Petals 5, acute. Stamens 5, not exceeding 

the petals. Ovary 3-5-celled ; style or column of united styles 1| lin. long, minutely 

3— 5-fid at the apex. Young fruit deeply 3-5-angled, angles compressed. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft. McConnell 8f Quelch, 666. 

Allied to S. coriaceum, Marchal, from which it differs in its more pointed leaves, very 


much shorter and stouter pedicels, and different indumentum. The indumentum which 
covers the whole of the inflorescence is rather peculiar, and is neither scurfy nor bairy, 
and when highly magnified seems to consist of a very thin dense covering of very 
minute, flattened, and very closely adpressed hairs, producing a greyish hue. 

This species and Sciadophyllwm coriaceum differ from all the others in the genus in 
having the Mowers collected into a compound umbel terminating a long peduncle, and not 
paniculate ; for although S. coriaceum has a second whorl of umbels below the terminal 
one, they all spring from one level, and the inflorescence cannot be called a panicle. 
The styles also of these two species are united in a column, and in this character, and 
indeed in their entire floral structure, they quite agree with Heptapleurum, a genus that 
is only artificially separated from Sciadophyllum by this one point, as has already been 
pointed out in Benth. & Hook. f. Genera Plantaruru, i. pp. 910, 912. As there are 
some species of Heptapleurum in which the styles are at first united in a column and 
during the growth of the young fruit become free, it appears to me that Stiadophylluvn 
should include Heptapleurum, when it would form a genus fairly uniform in character 
and of world-wide distribution within the tropics. 


Henkiquezia Jexmam, K. Sebum, in Mart. Fl. Bras. vi. pt. vi. p. 135. (Plate 4.) 
Mazaruni River, McConnell 8f Quelch, 711; Jenman, 629. 
This handsome ti-ee appears only to have been collected in this single locality. 

Chalepopiiyi.mjm speciosum, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 5, figs. 10-17.) Frutex 

glaber, ramis tetragonis. Folia opposita ad apicem ramorum subconferta, coriacea, 

sessilia. obovata, obtusa, subapiculata. Flores in axillis supremis (foliis delapsis) 

solitarii, breviter pedicellati, bibracteati. Calycis lobi sequales vel inrequales, 

lineares vel oblongi, acuti. Corolla hypocrateriforniis, 5-lobata, tubo lomnssimo, 

lobis anguste lanceolatis vel oblongis acutis. Stamina inclusa. Stylus saspius 


A stoutly-branched shrub, glabrous in all parts excepting the inside of the corolla. 

Branches 1-angled, 2 lin. thick ; internodes very short, 1^-5 lin. long. Leaves opposite, 

in a cluster of 3-5 pairs at the tips of the branches, subsessile, 1|— 2 in. long, f-1 in. lon°-, 

more or less obovate, obtuse, bluntly apiculate, cuneate at the base, rigidly coriaceous in 

the dried state, shining tibove, pale beneath, slightly revolute along the margins ; midrib 

stout and conspicuous beneath ; veins inconspicuous or not at all visible. Stipules 

broad-based, abruptly contracted into a linear point about H lin. long, persistent lon°- 

after the leaves have fallen. Flowers usually 2 to each shoot, or sometimes 1 onlv, 

arising immediately below the terminal tuft of leaves in the axils of fallen leaves or in 

those of the lowest pair, solitary in each axil. Pedicels 1-1 lin. long, stout, flattened, 

bibracteate at the base of the ovary. Bracts 4-8 lin. long, H-5 lin. broad, of the 

form and substance of reduced leaves. Calyx-lobes 5-10 lin. long, 1-2 £ lin. broad 

equal or unequal, varying from linear to oblong, acute, erect, coriaceous. Corolla 

very variable in size, hypocrateriform, regular, 5-lobed ; tube lf-3^ in. long, about If lin. 



diam., cylindric, 5-grooved, slightly enlarged and densely hairy inside at the throat 
around the anthers ; lohes spreading or recurved, 1-2 in. long, 2-6 lin. broad, linear- 
lanceolate or oblong, acute, glabrous, contorted in the bud. Stamens 5, included, 
inserted in the throat of the corolla-tube ; filaments about 2h lin. long ; anthers 3-3^ lin. 
long, dorsifixed, with a rather long and broad attachment to the filaments, linear, acute, 
bifid at the base, glabrous. Ovary 2^-3 lin. long, stoutly obconical, 2-celled ; style about 
as long as the corolla-tube, or shorter than the anthers or rarely exserted, glabrous ; 
stigma of two oblong obtuse lobes about 1 lin. long. Ovules numerous, flattened, on 
broad placentas that are peltately attached along their middle by a very short narrow 
plate to the septum. Fruit not seen. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McCotmell 8f Quelch, 100, 305, 653. 

The variation in the length of the style would seem to imply that the flowers are 
heterostyled, but it may be due to a lengthening at various periods of development. 
The stems in the figure on Plate 5 are not represented of sufficient stoutness. 

Sipanea pkatensis, Aubl. PL Guian. i. p. 11-7, t. 56; im Thurn & Oliver, in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. ser. II. ii. (1887), pp. 261, 276. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 175, 185, 198. — Widely distributed in eastern 
Tropical America from Trinidad to Minas Geraes and westward to Colombia. 

Didymocheamys Connellii, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 5, tigs. 1-9.) Eolia alterna, 

oblique oblanceolata, subabrupte acuta, glabra. Bracteae exteriores suborbiculares, 

brevissime cuspidata?. Corolloe tubus supra medium ampliatus, ore contractus ; 

lobi infra medium bilobulati lobulis lineari-oblongis undulatis subtortis. 

A small herb, with a simple stem lj-6 in. long. Leaves alternate, distichous, 1— If in. 

long, including the very short petiole, 2^—4^ lin. broad, obliquely or subfalcately 

oblanceolate, acute or rounded in at the apex to a very short cuspidate point, tapering 

from above the middle to an unequal base, the upper side of which is very narrow and 

acute, and the lower side broadly rounded or subtruncate, glabrous on both sides ; under 

surface pale, densely covered with large stomata, which appear as whitish dots under a 

lens ; stipule solitary, 3-4 lin. long, linear, acuminate, glabrous. Peduncle terminal, 

about j in. long, bearing two suborhicular, apiculate, glabrous bracts, about ^ in. in 

length and breadth, enclosing 2 (or more'?) shortly pedicellate flowers and 1 (or more?) 

linear acute bracteole. Calyx-lobes slightly unequal, f-1 lin. long, lanceolate, acute, 

erect, glabrous. Corolla-tube about ^ in. long, probably somewhat compressed, dilated a 

little above the middle, then narrowed to the mouth, glabrous, with the exception of a 

ring of hairs inside near the base ; lobes divided to slightly below the middle into two 

diverging, linear-oblong, obtuse, undulated and somewhat twisted lobules lh lin. long 

and rather more than i lin. broad, the basal entire part being about 1 lin. long and 

broad, deltoid-ovate, slightly concave, with a minute, obtuse, incurved point at the apex 

between the lobules. Stamens 5, included, inserted below the middle of the corolla-tube, 

unequal, 2 longer than the rest and inserted higher up, having on one side a pair and on 

the other side one of the shorter stamens alternating with them ; filaments glabrous, 


anthers linear. Glands of the disk 1, in 2 opposite pairs, the larger pair partly enclosing 
the smaller pair. Ovary inferior, laterally compressed, 2-celled , style included, filiform ; 
stigma of 2 short oblong lobes ; placenta ascending from near the base of the septum, 
thin ; ovules numerous, flat. 

On the Etoraima Range at 3500 It., McCotmell 8f Quelch, 71 I ; Kaieteur Falls on the 
Potaro River, Jenman, 7102. 

This is one of the most remarkable plants in the collection ; its alternate leaves and 
general habit give it the appearance of a Gesneraceous rather than of a Rubiaccous 
plant. The two large bracts enclosing the flowers and the bilobed corolla-lobes are 
very remarkable characteristics. It is very closely allied to IHdymochlamys While/, 
Hook, f., from New Granada, the only other known species, but differs in its much smaller 
leaves and very much longer corolla-lobules. In I). Whitei the leaves are lf-3 1 , in. 
long, 4-11 lin. broad, and taper at the apex into a long acuminate point, and the 
subquadrate lobules of the corolla are only about \ a line long and the same in breadth. 

To the generic characters of BidymocMamys may be added the following description 
of the fruit, taken from a specimen of D. Whitei sent to Kew by Mr. R. B. White in 
1882 : — Fruit a laterally-compressed 2-celled capsule, dehiscing at the apex between the 
glands ; placentas ascending from near the base of the septum, thin ; seeds numerous, 
minute, ovate, flattened, thinly covered with rather long hairs, with a dense tuft at the 
narrower (micropyle ?) end ; testa rather coriaceous, moderately thin ; albumen copious, 
oily ; embryo minute. 

The two smaller glands of the disk in the fruiting stage of D. Whitei are a little 
longer than the larger glands, they are tubular in the upper part and may assist in the 
dispersion of the seeds. 

Tocoyexa neglecta, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Folia breviter petiolata, lanceolata vel 
elliptico-lanceolata, acuta, basi cuneata, supra pubescentia, subtus tomentosa. 
Cyniae terminales, subsessiles, 9-20-florse. Calyx acute 5-dentatus, plus minusve 
tomentosus. Corolhe tubus 3-3J poll, longus, extra tomentosus, intra glaber, 
fauce hirtus ; lobi oblique oblongo-lanceolati, subacuti, glabri, ciliati. 
Branches subterete or obscurely 1-angled, with a light brown bark, tomentose when 
young. Leaves opposite, 3-7 in. long, lf-3A in. broad, lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate or 
slightly obovatc, acute, cuneately tapering at the base into a petiole 1^-3 lin. lon°-, 
somewhat harshly pubescent above, densely tomentose beneath, with the hairs alon"' the 
veins distinctly diverging on either side ; primary veins 9-13 on each side of the midrib, 
and together with the reticulated veinlets impressed above, prominent beneath. Stipules 
about 2 lin. long, triangular, acute, at first tomentose, becoming glabrous with age. 
Cymes terminal, subsessile, about 9-20-flowered. Flowers sessile. Calyx more or less 
tomentose; the tube H-2^ lin. long, oblong, slightly tapering downwards; the limb cup- 
shaped, with 5 deltoid acuminate teeth f-2 lin. long. Corolla hypocraterii'orm, 5-lobed 
white; the tube 3-3^ in. long, about H lin. diam., slightly enlarged at the mouth, 
tomentose outside, glabrous within, except in the throat, which is densely hairy ; the 



lobes 10-12 lin. long, 5-6 lin. broad, obliquely oblong-lanceolate, subacute, glabrous on 
botb sides, ciliate along the outer margin, but in the younger stage, when contorted 
into the lanceolate acuminate bud, the outside towards the base is more or less pubescent 
or tomentose. Anthers sessile at the mouth of the corolla-tube, partly exserted, 1 lin. 
long, oblong-lanceolate, obtuse. Ovary 2-celled ; style as long as the corolla-tube, 
slender, glabrous ; stigma of 2 oblong obtuse lobes, about 2 lin. lon»\ 1 lin. broad. 
Fruit globose, about f in. diam., thinly pubescent or subglabrous. 

British Guiana : Maimatta on the Rupununi River, Jewman, 5525, 5742 ; Kotinga 
Valley, McConnell &f Quelch, 163; Roraima, Schomburgk, 178; Suruma River, Schom- 
burgh, 772 b. 

Allied to Tocoyena feet Ida, Poepp. & Endl., but differs in its much shorter petioles and 
corolla-tube. From T. velutina, Spruce (which is a very distinct species, wrongly 
referred to T.fuetida by K. Schumann), it differs in the less elliptic form of the leaves, in 
the indumentum, and very different calyx-limb. Schomburgk's specimens are quoted 
by K. Schumann in the ' Flora Brasiliensis,' vi. pt. vi. p. 318, under T.formosa, K. Schum., 
which is a quite different species, with orbicular leaves and short, ellipsoidal, obtuse 

Retiniphyllum laxiflorum, N. E. Brown. (Plate 6.) Folia petiolata, elliptica vel 
elliptico-oblonga, obtusa basi subcuneata, glabra. Racemus terminalis, 3-9-florus, 
floribus longe pedicellatis. Bracteoli sub ovario in cupulam disciformem minute 
denticulatam connati. Calyx non costatus, truncatus, minutissime 5-dentatus. 
Corolla utrinque sericeo-puberula, lobis reflexis tubo brevioribus. — Pali ma laxiflora, 
Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. iii. (1811) p. 220; R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guian. iii. 
p. 1142. Synisoon Schomburgkianmn, Baill. in Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris (187!)), p. 208 ; 
Baill. Hist. PI. vii. p. 433 ; K. Schum. in Mart. Fl. Bras. vi. pt. vi. p. :!'.)s. 
A shrub or tree, glabrous in all parts excepting the flowers, and exuding a varnish-like 
resin on various parts of the young branches and inflorescence. Branches moderately 
slender, with a brown bark. Leaves opposite, petiolate, thinly coriaceous ; petiole 2-8 
lin. long; blade 1|-4| in. long, 1-2| in. broad, shining above, paler beneath with 
distinctly reticulated veins. Stipules subtruncate, minutely apiculate. Raceme erect, 
terminal, very lax, 2-2^ in. long, consisting of 1-4 pairs of opposite flowers and one 
terminal one. Bracts reduced to a minutely denticulate raised line. Pedicels 6-8 lin. 
long, ascending, slender. Bracteoles beneath the ovary connate into a very small, disk- 
like, minutely-denticulate involucel. Calyx 3^-4 lin. long, with the limb produced for 
2-2^ lin. above the ovary, tubular, truncate, with 5 very minute distant teeth, glabrous, 
but more or less coated with the varnish-like secretion. Corolla erect, 5-lobed, minutely 
adpressed-pubescent outside and inside, with a dense ring of white hairs near the base 
of the tube inside, below which it is glabrous; tube 8-9 lin. long, lj-lf lin. diam., 
cyliudric; lobes pendulous, reflexed from their base, 7 lin. long, 1^ lin. broad, linear- 
oblong, obtuse, nearly straight along one margin curved along the other, strictly con- 
torted in the bud. Stamens inserted at the mouth of the tube, reflexed with the corolla, 
lobes; filaments 5 lin. long, pubescent; anthers 2 lin. long, dorsiflxed, lanceolate, 
produced beyond the cells into a subulate point at the apex and into an oblong, 


emarginate, membranous appendage at the base, glabrous ; pollen apparently red. 
Ovary 5-celled, surmounted by a rather deep ring-like disk ; style much exserted, 1^ in. 
long', rather slender, pubescent ; stigma slightly thickened, ovoid-conical, tipped -with 5 
minute points. Ovules 2 in each cell, collateral, axile, pendulous from near the top of 
the cell, and partly covered at the top by a cap-like outgrowth of the funiclc-like 
placenta. Fruit a globose, ribbed berry about \ in. diam., crowned with the calyx-tube ; 
eudocarp hardened into 5 separable nutlets, 3-keeled on the back, triangular in 
transverse section, with a false cell under each lateral wing. Seeds not seen. 

Aroie Creek, im Thurn, 6. Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell & Quelch, IS; 
Appun, 1175 ; Schomburgk, 724 (815 b), 158. 

This very distinct species of Retiniphyllum appears to have been misunderstood by all 
authors. Originally it was doubtfully referred by Bentham to the genus Patima, and 
erroneously described as having very numerous seeds. Next, in Bentham and Hooker's 
' Genera Plantarum,' ii. p. 98, it is confused with Kutchubcea insignis, Fisch., and the 
part of the generic description in that work, relating to the fruit, is drawn up from the 
present plant and not from the true Kutchubcea, which indeed it greatly resembles in 
habit, but differs in having a 5-lobed corolla, 5 exserted, reflexed stamens, with long 
filaments, a long exserted style, and in the presence of a minute disk-like involucel at 
the apex of the pedicel, which is jointed to the calyx ; whilst in Kutchubcea the corolla is 
8-lobed, the stamens are 8, with the anthers almost sessile and included in the throat of 
the corolla-tube, the style is included, and the pedicel is continuous with the calyx, 
without any trace of an involucel ; the foliage and stipules of the two plants are also 
very different, besides disagreeing in several minor details. Finally Baillon made a 
distinct genus of it, which he jnaced next to Knoxia, where it has no affinity, for it is 
undoubtedly a true Retiniphyllum, allied to H. scabrum, Benth., but differing from that 
and all others of the genus by the long slender pedicels of its lax, few-flowered 
inflorescence. The involucel is characteristic of the genus Retiniphyllum. 

Psychotkia concinna, OHver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. ii. (1887) p. 276, t. 12. f. B. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 80, S9, 667. — Endemic. 

Psychotria crassa, Benth. in Hook. Journ. Bot. iii. (1811), p. 227 ; im Thurn & Oliver, 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887). pp. 265, 276 ; R, Schomb. Reisen in 
Brit. -Guiana, iii. p. 945. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, 3fcCounell & Quelch, 632. Also collected on Roraima by 

Appun, 1112. — Kanuku Mountains. 

Diodia hyssopifolia, Cham. & Scblecht. in Linnsea. iii. (1828), p. 350. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell & Quelch, 190. 



Vernonia acuta, X. E. Brown, sp. n. Rami tomentosi. Folia alterna, brevissirne 

petiolata, lanceolata, acutissiina vel subpungentia, basi acuta, supra glabra, subtus 

tenuiter et appresse pubescentia, glanduloso-punctata ; petiolus tomcutosus. Capitula 

in axillis aggregata, sessilia, sub-10-flora. Involucri squamae 5-6 seriate, inabricatae, 

lanceolatse, acuminata 1 , pungentes, subtomentosae, exteriores gradatim minores. 

Achaenia appresse pubescentia. Pappus biserialis, squamis exterioribus linearibus 

acutis quam setis interioribus multo brevioribus. 

BrancMets densely tomentose. Leaves alternate, spreading ; petiole 1-2 lin. long, 

tomentose ; blade 1^-2 in. long, \-\ iu. broad, lanceolate, very acute and subpungent at 

the apex, acute at the base, entire, with revolute margins, rather rigid, glabrous above, 

except the midrib, which is pubesceut, thinly covered with short adpressed hairs and 

gland-dotted beneath, with the veins and reticulated veinlets impressed above, prominent 

beneath. Heads in clusters of 3 or 4, sessile in the axils of the leaves at the ends of the 

brauchlets, about J in. diam., and about 10-flowered. Involucre-scales in 5-6 series, 

adpressed, lanceolate, acuminate, pungent-pointed, adpressed-pubescent or subtomentose, 

the innermost about 3 lin. long, -|-f lin. broad, the others gradually smaller Corolla 

\ in. long, 5-lobed, with the linear acute lobes of equal length with the tube, glabrous. 

Style-branches only about \ lin. longer than the stamens. Achenes rather more than 

1 lin. long, adpressed-pubescent. Pappus in two series, white; the outer of numerous 

linear acute scales, the inner of numerous bristles, slightly scabrous, much longer than 

the outer series. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 192. 

Eupatorium iwefolium, Linn. Syst. ed. 10, p. 1205, var. gkacillimum, Baker, in Mart. 
PL Bras. vi. pt. n. p. 290. 
Ireng Valley, Mc Council Sf Quelch, 242. 


Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 211, 304. 

Etjpatorium roraimense, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Herbacea, ramis breviter pubescentibus. 

Polia opposita, petiolata, ovato-lanceolata, acuminata, glabra, crenato-dentata, petiolo 

pubescente. Capitula corymbosa, circa 20-fl.ora. Involucri squamae lineares, acutae, 

glabra?. Corolla? 5-dentata, glabra, tubo supra medium ampliato, campanulato, 

dentibus ovatis, acutis. Achsenia 5-angulata, angulis scaberulis. Pappi setae 

scaberula?, roseo-purpureoe. 

Stems herbaceous, with a very fine spreading pubescence. Leaves opposite ; petiole 

4-6 lin. long, pubescent ; blade lJ-2^ in. long, |-1 in. broad, ovate-lanceolate, 

acuminate, crenately toothed, with teeth 1-2 lin. broad, glabrous on both sides, rather 

thin and submembranous in texture in the dried state. Corymbs terminal, compact, 

2-2f in. diam., its branches \-l in. long, and, together with the slender 1^-3 lin. long 

pedicels, pubescent like the stem. Bracteoles almost filiform. Heads about 2h lin. 

diam., about 20-flowered. Involucre-scales 2-scriate, 2-2] lin. long, linear, acute, nearly 


or quite glabrous. Corolla glabrous, the lube 1 liu. long-, slender below, dilated into a 
campaoulate cup above the middle, with 5 ovate acute teeth }, lin. long. Achenes 1 lin. 
long, 5-angled, slightly scabrous along the angles, blackish. Pappus-bristles slightly 
scabrous, rosy-purple. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, McCotmell 8f Quelch, 640. 

This somewhat resembles EupatoHum Penllandianum, DC. (Mandon, 259), but the 
corolla, pappus, and achenes are all much shorter, the corolla is very different in form, 
the involucre-scales are longer and narrower, and the leaves are less sharply toothed. 

Eupatorium PtTSCTJM, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Rami validi, cum petiolis et corymbis 

nigrescente-tomentosi. Folia breviter petiolata, late ovata, obtusa, basi rotundata 

vel subcordata, irregulariter et obtuse dentata, subcoriacea, supra glabra, glanduloso- 

punctata, subtus fusco-pubescentia. Coiymbi compact! Capitula 15-16-flora. 

Involucri squanme biseriatae, interiores lineari-oblonga; acuta?, exteriores minores. 

Corolla subcylindrica, breviter 5-dentata, tubo glabro, dentibus dorso minute 

papillaris. Pappi setse scabridse, plus minusve fiexuosre, subfulvescentes. 

Flowering branches stout, 2-2J lin. thick, densely covered with a short blackish 

tomentum. Leaves opposite, rather crowded, 1-9 lin. distaut ; petiole 2-3 lin. long, 

stout, with a blackish tomentum, which spreads along the veins of the leaf; blade 

1-lf in. long, 10 lin. to If in. broad, broadly ovate, obtuse, rounded or subcordate, very 

shortly and irregularly dentate, with subobtuse teeth, or nearly entire, somewhat 

coriaceous, glabrous (except along the veins,) and densely gland-dotted above, Avith a 

brownish or fuscous pubescence beneath ; primary lateral veins 4-5 on each side of the 

midrib, 2-3 of them arising close to the base, the others at or above the middle, 

prominent beneath. Corymbs terminal, 1J-2| in. diam., compact, with short branches, 

clothed with the blackish tomentum as are also the pedicels and involucres. Heads 

about ^ in. diam., 15-16-flowered. Involucral-scales in two series ; the inner about 

2 lin. long, h lin. broad, linear-oblong acute; the outer a little shorter, narrower and 

tapering from the base to an acute point. Corolla 2 lin. long, tubular, subcylindric, 

5-toothed, glabrous, with some minute papilloe on the back of the f lin. long, acute 

teeth. Ovary pubescent in the upper part with short fuscous subglandular hairs. 

Pappus-bristles numerous, scabrid, more or less flexuose, dull tawny. Ripe achenes not 


Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McCotmell Sf Quelch, 648. 

A very distinct species, which would appear to be best placed near JEJ. uummularia, 
Hook. & Am. 

Baccharis Vitis-idjea, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 277, t. 43. f. A. 
Upper slopes and summit of Mount Roraima, McC'omiell 8f Quelch, 27, 91, 650. — 

Heterothalamus densus, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 7, figs. 1-7.) Planta nana, perennis, 
dioica, dense foliosa. Folia patentia, lanceolata, acuta vel obtusa, basi in petioluni 
attenuata, integra, coriacea, nitida. Capitula sessilia, 2-1-na ad apices ramorum 
confertavel solitaria, discoidea. Flores hermaphroditi steriles, corollae tubo anguste 


infundifuliformi, lobis 5 linearibus acutis patentibus. Florum fcemininorum corolla 
angustissime tubulosa, truncata, vel oblique truncata, niinntissime denticulata, stylo 
multo brevior. 
A dwarf dioecious perennial with erect woody stems, apparently about 3-5 in. high, 
rooting at the base, sparingly branched in the upper part, densely leafy to tbe top, quite 
glabrous in all parts. Leaves densely crowded, spreading, £-f in. long (including the 
petiole), 1-2 lin. broad, lanceolate, acute or obtuse, tapering at the base into a linear 
petiole, entire, coriaceous, shining above, wrinkled from shrinkage in drying, veinless. 
Heads subunisexual, solitary or 2-4 together, sessile at the apex of the branches, and 
surrounded, but not overtopped by the leaves, about 2| lin. diam., discoid, many-flowered. 
Involucre campanulate, a little shorter than the florets, its scales in 2-3 series, subequal, 
about lh lin. long, § lin. broad, oblong or lanceolate, obtuse or acute, ciliate. Receptacle 
naked in the sterile heads, but with several linear or linear-lanceolate acute scales in the 
female heads, scattered among, and about as long as, the florets. Florets of the sterile 
heads structurally hermaphrodite, but with barren ovaries ; corolla with a tube 1 lin. 
long, gradually widening at the mouth,' and 5 linear, acute, spreading lobes A lin. long, 
o-labrous. Florets of the female heads with a very slender tubular corolla, truncate or 
oblique and very minutely 5-toothed at the apex, much shorter than the shortly bifid 
style, glabrous. Ovary glabrous. Pappus-bristles numerous and alike in both kinds of 
flowers, equalling the style in the female florets, slightly scabrid, whitish. 
Summit of Mount lloraima, 8600 ft., McConnell §r Quelch, G31. 

Pteeocaulok virgattjm, DC. Prod. v. p. 454, var. 

Kotinga Valley, McConmell fy Quelch, 159. Savannahs generally, McConnell 8f 
Quelch, 306. 

Stifftia condensata, Baker, in Mart. Fl. Bras. vi. pt. in. p. 351 ; im Thurn & Oliver, 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. ii. (1887), pp. 254, 278. 
Summit of Mount Rorairna, McConnell 8f Quelch, 87, 651. — Endemic. 

Stifftia Connellii, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 8.) Rami 2-3 lin. crassi, tomento 

compacto cinereo dense obtecti. Folia petiolata, coriacea, oblonga vel oblongo- 

obovata, obtusa, basi cuneato-rotundata, supra glabra, subtus tomento deciduo 

vestita. Capitula solitaria, magna. Involucri subinfundibuliformis bractese 

rnultiseriatae; interiores ligulatre obtusa?; exteriores gradatim minores, ovatae, obtusae, 

subtomentosse. Receptaculum bracteis linearibus minute dentato-ciliatis paucis 

onustum. Corolla infra medium 5-loba, glabra, lobis linearibus acutis spiraliter 

revolutis. Stylus longe exsertns, apice minute bifidus. 

Branches woody, 2-3 lin. thick, covered with a dense, felt-like, greyish tomentum. 

Leaves alternate, petiolate, coriaceous; petiole |-f in. long, tomentose; blade 3^-5^ in. 

long, H-2^ in. broad, oblong or obovate-oblong, obtuse, somewdiat cuneately rounded at 

the base, entire, glabrous above, clothed with a deciduous tomentum beneath, which 

falls away in patches ; midrib and veins about equally prominent on both sides. Heads 

solitary, terminal, about 2\ in. long and 2 in. diam. Involucre somewhat funnel-shaped, 


shorter than the florets, with imbricating' bracts in 10 or 12 series, the innermost about 
1^ in. long-, lf-3^ lin. broad, strap-shaped to Lanceolate-oblong, obtuse, the outer 
gradually smaller, ovate, obtuse, tomentose on tlie hack. Receptacle with a few 
deciduous bracts, scattered among the florets, about 1| in. long, linear, obtuse, sparseh 
and minutely denticulate-ciliate. Corolla glabrous, with a lube about ! in. long, 
slightly enlarging upwards, and spirally revolute linear-acute lobes, about 8 lin. long, 
§— § lin. broad. Anthers about 7 lin. long, with the tails connate in pairs. Ovary ] in. 
long, compressed, glabrous. Style much exserted, minutely bifid at the apex. Pappus- 
bristles copious, unequal, the longest about 10 lin. long, minutely adpressed pubesceut, 
dull straw-coloured, or pale tawny. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 1S000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 661. 

A very distinct species, readily distinguished by its large heads, and the very long 
exserted styles. It appears to be a connecting link between Stifftia and Wimderlichia. 
The presence of bracts upon the receptacle and the minutely bifid stigma, technically 
place it in the genus Wunderlichia, Biedel, but the plant has a different appearance, 
and the receptacular bracts are not persistent and not of the same character or scarious 
textm-e as those of Wunderlichia. In all probability when more species are discovered 
it will be found that the two genera will have to be united. 

Qtjelchia, N. E. Brown, gen. now 
Capitula 1-flora in glomerulum vel cymam densam aggregata. Involucruni conico- 
tubulosum, bracteis imbricatis interioribus elongatis, exterioribus gradatim brevioribus 
ovatis. Rcceptaculum parvum, nudum. Corolla regularis, profunde 5-loba, tubo 
brevissimo, lobis linearibus. Antherac basi caudato-sagittatse, caudis retrorsim subbarbatis. 
Styli rami breves, erecti, truncati. Achsenia subteretia, leviter costata. Pappi seta? 
copiosse. — Erutex, foliis alternis integris coriaceis. Capitulorum glomeruli pedunculati. 

Quelchia confehta, N. E. Brown. (Plate 7, figs. 8-14.) Eaini apice tomentosi. Folia 

petiolata, obovata vel oblongo-oblanceolata, obtusa vel apiculata basi cuneato-acuta, 

primum subtornentosa, demum glabrata. Glomeruli vel corymbi |-1 poll. diam. 

Pedunculi tomentosi. Capitula sessilia, 1-flora, conferta. Involucri bractea? 

interiores anguste lanceolata?, obtusa?, glabra? ; exteriores ovata?, dorso tomentosa?. 

Corolla glabra. Achsenia 2} 2 lin. longa, glabra. Pappi seta? 3-4 lin. longa? vix 

vel leviter scabrida?. 

Apparently a shrub, densely tomentose on the youngest parts of the shoots. Leaves 

alternate, coriaceous, petiolate ; petiole 2-G lin. long, tomentose in the young state 

becoming glabrous; blade 1-2^ in. long, 5-10 lin. broad, obovate or oblong-oblanceolate, 

obtuse or more or less apiculate, cuneate-acute at the base, entire, at first with a thin 

tomentum on both sides, which soon disappears and the leaf becomes glabrous ; midrib 

impressed and pubescent above, very prominent beneath, veins reticulated, impressed 

above, scarcely prominent beneath. Corymbs pedunculate, small, hemispherical or 

subglobose, very densely many-headed, f-1 in. diam. Peduncles h-\h in. Ion"-, 



tomentose, bearing a few small leaf-like bracts at the base of the very short branches 
of the corymb. Heads sessile, densely crowded, about 1 lin. long, 1 -flowered. Involucre 
cylindric-conical, with 12-16 spirally imbricating scales, the innermost about 3i lin. 
long, |-1 lin. broad, narrowly lanceolate obtuse, glabrous, the outer gradually shorter 
and more and more ovate, and more or less tomentose on the back. Floret not exceeding 
the involucre (?), hermaphrodite. Corolla regular, very deeply 5-lobed, glabrous, the 
lobes about 2J lin. long, linear, acute, incurved at the apex. Stamens with free 
filaments and syngenesious anthers, which are produced at the base into long, slightly 
barbed tails. Achenes 2J lin. long, subterete, slightly grooved, glabrous. Pappus- 
bristles copious, 3-4 lin. long, nearly smooth or very slightly scabrid, pale tawny-white. 

Summit of Mount Horaima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelc/t, 652. 

This plant appears to be nearly allied to the genus Mbquinia, DC, but differs in habit 
and in its 1-fiowered, densely-crowded heads. I am somewhat doubtful as to the 
exsertion of the floret from the involucre during flowering, as I have only seen the 
corollas in the bud state; when in fruit the achene is as long as the involucre and the 
pappus is entirely exserted. 


Centropogon surinamensis, Presl, Prod. Monog. Lobel. p. 48 ; im Thurn & Oliver, 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot, ii. (1887), pp. 261, 278. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 156. — Widely dispersed throughout Tropical 
America except on the west of the Andes. 


Psammisia coriacea, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Erutex glaber. Eolia breviter petiolata, 
obovata, oblonga vel orbiculata, crasse coriacea, integra, infra reticulato-venosa. 
Elores in axillis aggregati, pendiUi. Pedicelli recurvi, bibraeteolati. Calyx cum 
pedicello articulatus, limbo breviter 4-5-dentato. Corolla i poll, longa, tubulosa, 
ore angustata, breviter 4-5-loba, lobis erectis lineari-oblongis obtusis. Stamina 
inclusa, biseriata, libera, glabra, antheris longe bitubulosis. Ovarium subglobosum. 
Stylus corolla subtequilougus, nee exsertus. 
A shrub with a greyish-brown bark. Leaves shortly petiolate, thick and rigidly 
coriaceous, glabrous ; petiole 1-2 lin. long, stout ; blade f-lj in. long, J-l-g in. broad, varying 
from obovate to orbicular, obtuse, entire, reticulately veined beneath. Flowers in clusters 
of 3-9 in the axils of the leaves, pedicellate, drooping. Pedicels about 1 lin. long, 
curved, bibracteolate at the middle or below, glabrous. Bracteoles opposite or sub- 
opposite, J-f lin. long, broadly ovate, obtuse or subapiculate, very minutely ciliate. 
Calyx about 2| lm. long, glabrous, jointed to the pedicel, truncate at the base, with a 
subglobose tube and a cup-shaped shortly 4-5-toothed limb, the teeth very much 
broader than long, acute or apiculate. Corolla \ in. long, about 2 lin. diam., tubular, 
narrowed at the mouth, 4-5-lobed, glabrous inside and outside ; lobes 1 lin. long, erect, 
linear-oblong, obtuse. Stamens 8-10, included, biseriate, glabrous ; the shorter filaments 
1^ lin. long, the longer If lin. long ; anthers | in. long, with the cells passing into two 


long' tubes about 3 times as long as the united part, opening by long oblique slits 
Ovary subglobose, 4-5-eelled ; style r>i-6 lin. long, not exserted, filiform, glabrous ; stigma 
small, discoid. Ovules numerous in each cell. Berry globose, many-seeded ; seeds about 
§ lin. long, variable in form, with a pale brown reticulated testa. 
Summit of Mount lloraima, 8600 ft., McConucll A- Quelch, 662. 

Yaccinitjm RORAIMENSE, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Fruticulus, ramis patente pubescentibus 

Miosis. Folia parva, breviter petiolata, rigide coriacea, lanceolata obovata vel 

elliptica, obtusa vel rare acuta, crenato-dentata vel Integra, glabra, marginihus subtus 

incrassata. Racemi breves, terminales, bractcati. Pedicelli bracteolati, pubescentes. 

Bracteoke lanceolata?, acutse, tenuiter glanduloso-ciliatae. Calyx glaber, loliis 

deltoideo-ovatis acutis. Corolla 2f liu. longa, urceolata, breviter 5-loba. Stamina 

10, inclusa, tilamentis a basi attenuatis ciliatis, acutis nee aristatis. 

Ovarium obconicum, 5-loculare, glabrum, loculis 2-3-ovulatis. — Vaccmivm, mi 

Kfloribundum, H. B. & K. ?, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887) p. 278. 

A small branching shrub, probably of dwarf habit. Branches rather slender, very 

leafy, pubescent with short spreading hairs. Leaves small, petiolate, thick, rigidly 

coriaceous, glabrous; petiole ^-lj lin. long; blade 3|-7 lin. long, 2-5g lin. broad, 

varying from lanceolate to elliptic, obtuse or bluntly pointed, rarely acute, crenately 

toothed or entire, with the margins much thickened beneath, and the veins usually 

inconspicuous above, more or less evident beneath. Flowers in short terminal bracteate 

racemes, or aggregated at the apex of the branches. Pedicels li-3, rarely 4-5 lin. long, 

pubescent, bracteolate. Bracts and bracteoles similar, 1-li liu. long, lanceolate, 

acute, or occasionally the bracts are larger and resemble very small leaves, glabrous, 

more or less gland-ciliate. Calyx jointed to the pedicel, with a 5-lobed limb, glabrous; 

lobes 1 lin. long, deltoid-ovate, acute. Corolla 2f lin. long, urceolate, 5-lobed, 

glabrous; lobes about f lin. long, broadly ovate, obtuse. Stamens 10, included; 

filaments 1 lin. long, tapering upwards from a broad base, ciliate ; anthers acute but not 

aristate. Ovary obconical, surmounted by a thick ring-like disk, 5-eelled, with 2-3 

ovules in each cell, glabrous ; style about lh lin. long ; stigma dilated cushion-like. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., vm Thurn, 329, 333 ; McConnell & Quelch, 79, 
494, 642. 

Allied to V. polystachyum, Benth., but very different in foliage. 

Besides the above, there is a specimen belonging to this family which is too imperfect 
for identification ; it was collected in the Kotinga Valley, McConucll & Quelch, 187. 


I'ernettya makginata, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Frutex foliosus, ramis gracilibus plus minus 
hirtis. Folia breviter petiolata, coriacea, ovata vel elliptica, acuta vel subacuta, basi 
rotundata, supra glabra, nitida, infra ssepe parce setulosa, marginibus infra incrassat is 
setuloso-denticulatis. Flores axillares, solitares. Pedicelli bracteolati, pubescentes. 



Bracteolae ovatse, glanduloso-dentieulatae. Calyx glaber, lobis ovatis acutis minute 
ciliatis. Corolla 3^ lin. longa, urceolata, breviter 5-loba, lobis recurvis. Stamina 
inclusa, filameutis basi dilatis ciliatis, antheris apicibus 4-aristatis. Eacca globosa, 
| poll. diam. — P. sp. off. parvifolice, Benth., Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. 
Bot. ii. p. 278. 
A shrub with very leafy slender branches, which are more or less covered with 
scattered spreading hairs, but are scarcely hispid, and occasionally nearly glabrous. 
Leaves small, rather crowded, petiolate, rigidly coriaceous ; petiole about 1 lin. long ; 
blade 5-8 lin. long, 3|-4| lin. broad, ovate or elliptic, acute or subacute, rounded at the 
base, thickened and slightly recurved along the denticulate margins beneath, the teeth 
tipped with a minute bristle, usually with a few scattered bristle-like hairs beneath, 
otherwise glabrous, shining and rugose from depressions (caused by shrinkage in drying?) 
between the veins above. Flowers axillary, solitary. Pedicels 2-5 lin. long, more or 
less pubescent, bracteolate. Bracteoles 5 or 6, about 1 lin. long, ovate, acute, gland- 
toothed, the lowermost crowded. Calyx 5-lobcd nearly to the base, not enlarging in the 
fruiting stage; lobes H lin. long, f-1 lin. broad, ovate, acute, minutely ciliate, otherwise 
glabrous. Corolla 3h lin. long, urceolate, glabrous, with 5 ovate obtuse recurved lobes 
f-1 lin. long. Stamens shorter than the corolla, 2 lin. long; filaments ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, ciliate with rather long hairs ; anthers tipped with f bristles about g- as long 
as the cells. Ovary subglobose, glabrous ; style li lin. long, glabrous ; stigma dilated, 
discoid. Berry globose, about | in. in diam. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McGonnell & Quelch, 037 : im Thurn, 333 a. 
Allied to Perttettya rigida, DO, but among other characters the more thickened margin 
of the leaves and more numerous bracteoles serve readily to distinguish it. 

Gaflthejua setulosa, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Frutex setulis glanduliferis ubique vestitus. 

Folia brevissime petiolata, late cordato-ovata vel suborbicularia, coriacea, integra, 

utiinque setuloso-scabrida, ciliata. Racemi solitarii vel 2-3-ni ad apices ramorum, 

bract eati. Calycis lobi deltoideo-ovati, acuminati. Corolla urceolata, breviter 5- 

loba, intra glabra. Stamina inclusa, tilamentis linearibus ciliatis, antheris obtusis 

muticis. Ovarium dejn-essurn, 5-lobum, pubescens. — Gaultheria aff. G. vestitcr, 

Benth., Oliver in Trans. Liun. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887) p. 278. 

A shrub, more or less clothed with long setre or gland-tipped hairs on the branches, 

leaves, and inflorescence. Leaves very shortly petiolate, f— If in. long, f-li in. broad, 

ovate or suborbicular, obtuse or subacute, cordate at the base, entire, rigidly coriaceous, 

more or less setose or scabrid on both sides, ciliate, with the veins much reticulated and 

prominent beneath. Racemes solitary or 2-3 together at the apex of the branches, erect, 

bracteate, 1-4 in. long, 7-15-flowered, rather lax, puberulous and more or less densely 

covered with gland-tipped bristles on the axis, bracts, pedicels, calyx, and corolla. 

Bracts ^— J in. long, 2-3J lin. broad, elliptic subacute, concave, spreading, persistent. 

Pedicels 3-8 lin. long, ascending or spreading. Calyx 2-2^ lin. loug, 5-lobed to | the 

way down, the lobes l-J-2 lin. long, deltoid-ovate, acuminate. Corolla 3^-4 lin. long, 

2^ lin. diam., urceolate, with 5 recurved, ovate, obtuse lobes f lin. long, glabrous inside. 

Stamens 10, included, § as long as the corolla ; filaments linear, ciliate ; anthers | lin. 


long, oblong, obtuse, shortly bifid at the apex, but not in the least produced into awns 
or tubes, opening by longitudinal slits nearly to the base. Ovary depressed, 5-lobed, 
pubescent; style included, rather stout, glabrous; stigma simple, not enlarged. Capsule 
depressed, 5-angled, pubescent. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., im Thurn, '-V-V1 ; McConnell & Quelch, 104, 047- 
Allied to Gauliheria cordifolia, 11. B. & K., and G. vestita, Henth., but differing from 
both in the scabrid upper surface of the leaves, the stouter gland-tipped seta? which 
clothe it. and by the obtuse, not aristate anthers. 

Ledotiiamnus sessilielorus, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Fraticulus nanus, ericoideus. Eolia 
verticillata, 3-na vel 4-na ad nodos posita, imbricata, brevissime petiolata, linearia 
vel lineari-lanceolata, acuta, minute puberula. Flores solitarii, termiuales, sessiles. 
Sepala 7 vel 6, anguste lanceolata, acuta, puberula vel subglabra, ciliata. Petala 
7 vel 6, oblonga obtusa, glabra. Stamina 7 vel 6, filanientis quain antheris multo 
longioribus. Discus nullus. Ovarium subglobosum vel ovoideum, granulosum. 5-8- 
loculare ; stylus crassus ; stigma subinfundibuliforme, minute 5-8-lobulatum. 
A dwarf shrublet 4-8 in. high. Stems erect, simple or branched, densely leafy to tin- 
apex, at first minutely puberulous, becoming glabrous, and rough from the persistent 
scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves resembling those of an Erica, in densely crowded 
whorls of 3-4, ascending, imbricating, lh-2h lin. long, |-§ lin broad, linear or narrowly 
linear-lanceolate, acute, narrowed at the base into a very short petiole, thick, flat on 
the face, grooved down the back, minutely puberulous, ciliate or entire. Flowers 
terminal, solitary, f-lj in. diam., sessile, surrounded by a few bracts that are intermediate 
in character between the sepals and leaves. Sepals 7 or occasionally 0, spreading, *>— 1 A 
lin. long, §-f lin. broad, narrowly lanceolate, acute, minutely puberulous or subglabrous, 
ciliate. Petals usually 7, very spreading, bright crimson, 5-7 lin. long, 2-3 lin. broad, 
oblong, obtuse, cuneately narrowed at the base, entire, glabrous. Stamens 7 or 6, shorter 
than the petals, glabrous ; filaments 3J-4i lin. long, gradually dilated towards the base; 
anthers 1^ lin. long, oblong, obtuse. Ovary subglobose or ovoid, granulate-rugose, 5-8- 
celled, with a stout style 1J-1^ lin. long, slightly dilated at the apex into a funnel- 
shaped minutely 5-8-lobed stigma. Capsule sessile, 2-2/, lin. diam., 5-8-valved, 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8000 ft., McConnell &• Quelch, 643. 

Var. glaber, N. E. Brown, var. n. Folia et sepala glabra, ciliata. 

Leaves and sepals glabrous, ciliate. 

L.guyanensis, Meissn., var. minor, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p, 278, t. J t. f. A. 

Mount Koraima, on the upper part of the Ledge and on the summit, Ln Thurn, 308 ; 
McConnell 8f Quelch, 99. 

This plant is very distinct from L. guyanensis, Meissn., with which it has been 
associated by Oliver, differing not only by its smaller size and smaller leayes, but more 
especially by its sessile flowers and the long filaments of the stamens, ln L. guyanensis 
the flowers have pedicels ^— § in. long covered with gland-tipped hairs, and the filaments 
of the stamens are only about 1 lin. long and shorter than the anthers. 


Befaria gttianensis. Klotzsch, in R. Schomb. Eeisen in Brit.-Gniana, iii. p. 1088; 
Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 278 ; Appuu, Unter den 
Tropen, ii. pp. 232, 287, 292. 
Upper slopes and Ledge of Mount Roraima, McComiell Sf Quelch, 40. — Endemic. 

Befakia Imthtjrnii, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Fruticulus nanus, ramis pilis glanduliferis 
vel setulis vestitus. Eolia conferta, breviter petiolata, coriacea. elliptico-oblonga vel 
elliptico-lanceolata, utrinque obtusa vel acuta, supra glabra, subtus glaucaet glabra 
vel costa plus minus setulosa, marginibus integris vel glanduloso-scabridis vel ciliatis. 
Racemi snbumbelliformes, densi. Pedicelli snbhispidi. Calyx campanulatus, 7-8- 
lobus, lobis biseriatis late ovatis obtusis. Petala 6-8, oblonga, obtusa. Stamina 
12-16, petalis subaequilonga, basi pilosa. — Befaria off. B. reshwsce, Mutis ; Oliver 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot, ii. (1887), p. 278. 
A dwarf sbrublet, witb tbe branchlets densely covered with spreading simple or gland- 
tipped bairs, very leafy. Leaves crowded, very shortly petiolate, coriaceous ; petiole ^-1 
lin. long ; blade i-1 in. long, \-h in. broad, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, about 
equally acute or obtuse at each end, with slightly revolute margins, which are either 
quite entire, minutely gland-scabrid, or ciliate with short gland-tipped bristles or longer 
simple hairs, glabrous and smooth above, glaucous and either quite glabrous or with some 
simple or gland-tipped bristles scattered along the midrib beneath. EloAvers several, 
crowded into a short terminal umbel-like raceme or cluster, each flower being solitary 
in the axil of one of the uppermost leaves. Pedicels 3-7 lin. long, more or less densely 
covered with stiff spreading hairs. Calyx about 2 lin. long, campanulate, 7-8-lobed to 
about the middle, with the lobes in two series, broadly ovate, obtuse, glabrous, minutely 
ciliate. Corolla glabrous, pink; petals 6-8, slightly spreading, S-9 lin. long, 3 lin. 
broad, oblong, obtuse, cuneate at the base. Stamens 12-16, about as long as the petals; 
filaments filiform, slightly thickened and hairy at the base ; anthers 1 lin. long, cuneately 
oblong, obtuse. Ovary depressed, lobulate, glabrous, with a glabrous style 6-8 lin. long, 
elongating to 1-1 J in. long in fruit, and a capitate slightly lobed stigma. Capsule about 
^ in. diam., woody, 6 (or more ?)-valved. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., vm Thurn, 310; Mc Council §r Quelch, 94, 646. 
Allied to B. guianemis, Klotzsch {Schomburgk, 1011). from which it differs in its less 
elongated, glabrous leaves. In B. gnianemis the leaves are 1-1A in. long, and their upper 
surface is thinly covered with short gland-tipped bristles, tubercular at the base, becoming 
more or less scabrid after the bristles have fallen or have been rubbed off; on the under 
side they are more or less densely covered all over with fine gland-tipped hairs, with 
longer hairs on the midrib, and they appear to be less glaucous than in B. Imthumii. 


Aedisia Quelchii, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Eiutex dioicus, glaber, ramis crassis. Eolia 
aiterna, petiolata, coriacea, obovata vel subelliptica, obtusa vel rare subacuta, integra, 
subtus minutissime rubro-glandulosa. Paniculae axillares, anguste oblonga? vel 


pyramidales, minutissime rubro-glandulosae, floribus parvis ad apices ramoruni 

confertis. Calyx ])rofuiide 4-lobus, glanduloso-punctatus, lobis oblongis obtusis. 

Corolla profunda fc-loba, glanduloso-punctata, lobis oblongis obtusis patentibus. 

Stamina 4, corollsB lobis breviora et prope basin inserta, filamentis quam antheris 

panlo brevioribus. 
A dio3cious shrub, probably of dwarf habit, glabrous in all parts, with branches ^ in. 
thick, terete. Leaves chiefly near the apex of the stem, alternate, petiolate, coriaceous ; 
petiole 2-4 lin. long, rather stout; blade H-2f in. Ion-', 10-1 (i lin. broad, obovate or 
occasionally subelliptic, obtuse, rarely subacute, with revolute margins, entire, more or 
less densely covered with very minute red glands beneath. Panicles axillary, near the 
summits of the branches, narrowly oblong or pyramidal, 1-3| in. long, }- 1\ in. broad, 
covered with minute red glands, with the flowers crowded at the ends of the short, 
rather distant, simple branches. Bracts |-1 lin. long, oblong, obtuse, dotted with rather 
large dark-coloured glands. Calyx 4-lobed nearly to the base ; lobes i-§ lin. long, oblong, 
obtuse, conspicuously gland-dotted. Corolla about 2 lin. diam., i-lobed nearly to the 
base; lobes f-1 lin. long, rather more than i lin. broad, conspicuously gland-dotted. 
Stamens 4, shorter than and inserted towards the base of the corolla-lobes, with stout 
filaments rather shorter than the oblong, ^ lin. long anthers. Ovary rudimentary, minute, 
subulate, or none. Female flowers not seen. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 665. 
A very distinct species, unlike any other. 


Mandevilla glabra, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Caules volubiles, glabrescentes. Folia 

parva, distantia, petiolata, coriacea, lanceolata, acuminata, apice obtusa, glabra. 

Bacemi brevissimi, pauciflori, axillares, glabri. Peduneuli et pedicelli brevissimi. 

Sepala parva, ovata, acuta, glabra. Corolla infundibularis, 2J poll, longa, extra 

glabra, intra ad insertionem staminum pilis deflexis dense barbata, lobis dolabri- 

formibus. Stamina inclusa, filamentis oblongis apice barbatis, antheris acutis, basi 

cordatis obtusis. 

Stem twining, about 1 lin. thick, glabrous or with a very few short scattered hairs, 

brown. Leaves opposite, distant, petiolate, coriaceous, glabrous ; petiole 2-3 lin long ; 

blade f-1 in. long, 3J-4 lin. broad, lanceolate, acuminate, obtuse at the point, entire, 

with the midrib impressed above, prominent beneath, and having 5 or 6 small tubercles 

or glands scattei'ed along it on the upper side, the lateral veins spreading, slightly 

impressed on both sides in the dried state, not very conspicuous. Racemes axillary, 

from one axil, very short, about 3-flowered in the specimen seen ; glabrous. Peduncle 

about 1 lin. long, stout. Pedicels alternate, 1-1 h lin. long, stout. Sepals 1 lin. long, 

§-f lin. broad, ovate, acute, glabrous, each with a very short, transversely oblong, 

denticulate scale at its base inside. Corolla about 2] in. long, funnel-shaped ; tube 

curved, cylindrical and about H lin. diam. in the lower half, much enlarged and sub- 

campanulate in the upper half, glabrous outside and inside, except ."« broad lines that are 


densely bearded with deflexed white hairs at the insertion of the stamens within ; 
lobes about f in. long, hatchet-shaped, one side being dilated into a large square 
membranous obtuse lobe. Stamens inserted at the top of the narrow part of the tube 
included ; filaments about 1 lin. long and nearly as broad, flat, oblong, slightly bearded 
near the apex on the inner face ; anthers 3f lin. long, linear-oblong, acute, shortly 
cordate at the base, connate, adnate to the stigma. Disk shortly lobed. Ovary glabrous ; 
style about 14 lin. long, slender, glabrous ; stigma conical, 5- winged. 
Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell S,' Queleh, 10. 

Manlevilla linearis, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Caules volubiles, gracilcs, puberuli. Eolia 
breviter petiolata, linearia, acuta, supra glabra, subtus tomentosa, marginibus fere 
vel usque ad costam revolutis. Racemi breves, pauciflori, minute puberuli. 
Bi'actese parvae, acuminata?. Pedicelli brevissimi. Sepala parva, deltoidea, acuminata. 
Corolla infundibularis, 2j poll, longa, recta, extra glabra, intra ad mediam dense 
barbata. Stamina inclusa, filamentis ellipticis glabris, antheris subacutis basi 
breviter cordatis vel emarginatis. 
Stem twining, slender, puberulous. Leaves opposite, £— 2^ in. distant, petiolate, 
thinly coriaceous; petiole l-l 1 lin. long, rather slender, puberulous; blade 1^-2| in. 
long, linear, acute, obtuse at the base, with the margins revolute nearly or quite to the 
midrib, glabrous and shining, with an impressed midrib above, tomentose, with a 
prominent midrib beneath, the tomentum usually hidden by the revolute margins. 
Bacemes short, |-f in. long, more than half of which is peduncle, 3-1-flowered, very 
minutely puberulous. Bracts about f lin. long, ovate, acuminate. Pedicels alternate, 
about 1 lin. long, rather stout. Calyx-lobes about 1^ lin. long, deltoid, acuminate, sub- 
glabrous or very minutely puberulous, each with a small ovate scale at the base inside. 
Corolla about 2^ in. long, funnel-shaped, straight, 5-lobed, glabrous outside, the middle 
part of the tube inside densely covered with deflexed Avhite hairs ; tube cylindric and 
about 1^ lin. diam. for f of its length, upper part much enlarged, subcampanulate ; 
lobes about 5 lin. long, hatchet-shaped, with an incurved apiculus, one side being 
dilated into a subrectangular, obtuse, membranous lobe. Stamens 5, included, inserted 
at the top of the narrow part of the tube ; filaments about | lin. long, elliptic, glabrous ; 
anthers 2 lin. long, linear-oblong, subacute, slightly narrowed at the emarginate or 
shortly cordate base. Disk of 5 oblong lobes. Ovary glabrous ; style about l£ in. 
long, filiform, glabrous; stigma subquadrate when viewed sideways, obtuse, 5-winged. 
Kotinga Valley, 3000 ft., McConnell fy Queleh, 132, 101, 

Mandevilla scaberula, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Caules volubiles, pubemli. Folia 
distantia, petiolata, oblonga, obtusa, apiculata, basi cordata, supra scaberula, subtus 
tomentosa, reticulato-venosa. Racemi axillares, multiflori, puberuli. Bractea? 
oblonga? vel oblongo-lanceolata?, Pedicelli brevi. Calyeis Lobi ovati, acuti, intra 
squama ovata instructi. Corolla 2 poll, longa, infundibularis, extra pubesceus, 
intra ad insertionem staminum pilis detlexis dense barbata, tubo curvato inferne 
angusto basi leviter inflato, superne ampliato subcampanulatOj lobis dolabriformibus. 
Stamina inclusa, filamentis linearibus dense barbatis. antheris acutis basi cordatis 


Stem twining, lf-1^ lin. thick, puberulous. Leaves opposite, very distant, 2f, -3| in. 
long, ly- 2 in. broad, oblong, obtuse, apiculate, cordate at the base, scaberulous above, 
finely greyish-tomentose beneath, reticulated with dark veins; petiole 1 ',-2 lin. long, 
puberulous. Racemes axillary, from one axil, 2-3 in. Long, including the f- in. long 
peduncle, many-flowered, densely puberulous in all parts. Bracts about 2 lin. long. 
lf-1^ lin. broad, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute, thin, spreading, deciduous. 
Pedicels alternate, 2-3 lin. long, moderately stout. Calyx-lobes 1^ lin. long and nearly 
as broad, ovate, acute, each with an ovate acute slightly toothed scale at its base inside. 
Corolla about 2 in. long, funnel-shaped, curved, 5-lobed, pubescent outside, densely 
bearded with dellexed white hairs at the insertion of the stamens within, elsewhere 
glabrous ; the lower half of the tube is slightly inflated at its base and there about 
2^ lin. diam., narrowed above to H lin. diam. ; the upper half much enlarged, funnel- 
shaped or subcampanulate ; lobes about f in. long, hatchet-shaped, one side being dilated 
into a large subquadrate, obtusely rounded, membranous lobe. Stamens 5, included, 
inserted at the top of the narrow part of the tube ; filaments short, flat, linear, densely 
bearded on the inner face ; anthers 2} 2 lin. long, linear-oblong, acute, shortly cordate at 
the base, connate, adnate to the stigma. Disk tubular, f lin. deep, 5-crenate. Ovary 
pubescent; style about 1J in. long, very slender, glabrous ; stigma conical, 5-winged. 

Tolimbaru Creek near Mount Boraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, I'M). 


Ditassa taxifolia, Decne. in DC. Prod. viii. p. 578. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 165, 166. Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch. 


BoNyuNiA minor, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 9, figs. 1-5.) Frutex glaber. Folia 
opposita, approximata, breviter petiolata, coriacea, rotundato-ovata, subacuta, basi 
rotundata vel leviter cordata. Cyma? subdensa?, ramulis puberulis, floribus sessilibus 
braeteolatis. Calyx campanulatus, minute puberulus, dentibus deltoideis subacutis. 
Corollse tubus subcylindiicus, extra pubescens, intra parte inferiore puberulus, 
superiorc glaber ; lobi patentes, recurvi, superne cariuato-incrassati, superne 
etiam carina et marginibus puberuli, area basali triangulare glabri. Ovarium 
breviter pilosum, stylo pubescente, stigmate bilobo. 
A shrub. Branches terete, glabrous, dark brown. Leaves opposite, subimbricate, 
ascending, shortly petiolate, coriaceous, glabrous; petiole 1 lin. long; blade f-lj in. 
long, ^-1 in. broad, roundish-ovate, subacute, broadly rounded or slightly cordate at the 
base, with prominent veins beneath. Cymes terminal, rather dense, 1-1} in. diam., 
with puberulous branches 2-4 lin. long. Flowers sessile, bracteolate. Bracteoles 
|-1 lin. long, linear or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse, minutely puberulous. Calyx about 
\\ lin. long, campanulate, puberulous, with 5 deltoid subacute teeth. Corolla tubular, 
with 5 spreading recurved lobes; tube 3^ lin. long, subcylindric, pubescent outside, 
puberulous within in the lower §, glabrous above; lobes about 2| lin. long, spreading. 



recurved, thickened and keeled in the upper half and along the margins below and there 
densely puberulous, enclosing a narrowly triangular glabrous basal area. Stamens 5, 
inserted at the mouth of the tube, glabrous ; filaments J lin. long, slender ; anthers 
about 1 lin. long, partly exserted, linear, acute. Ovary shortly hairy ; style lf-lf lin. 
long, pubescent; stigma 2-lobed. Capsule 4-0 lin. long, 2^-3 lin. diam.. ellipsoidal, 
sparingly pubescent or nearly glabrous, 2-valvcd. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell §• Quelch, 161. Ireng Valley, McConnell §r Quelch, 331. 

Axtonia ovata, Pohl, PL Bras. ii. p. 13, t. 109 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 164. Upper slopes of Mount Roraiina, 
McConnell 8f Quelch. 324. — Only known from Brazil and Guiana. 


Schultesia brack yptkka, Cham, in Linmea, viii. (1833), p. s . 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell §r Quelch, 148. 

Schultesia ueterophyuua, Miq. in Liansea, xix. (1847), p. 136. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 249. 

Schultesia Benthamiaxa, Klotzscb, ex Griseb. in Liungea, xxii. (1849), p. 31. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 247 (and 224, apparently a starved state). 

Coutoubea reflexa, Benth. in Ann. Nat. Hist. ii. (1839). p. 1 ,42. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell fy Quelch, 141. 

Coutoubea spicata, Aubl. PI. Guian. i. p. 72. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell §r Quelch, 221, 259. 

Lisianthus Imthuknianus, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 279. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 101, 682. — Endemic. 

Lisianthus uliginosus, Griseb. Gen. et Sp. Gent. p. 181. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 172. Ireng Valley. 201, 252. Upper slopes of 
Mount Roraima (a small-flowered form), JfcConuell §r Quelch, 15. — Widely dispersed in 
Guiana and Brazil. 

Lisianthus Quelchii, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 9, tigs. 6-9.) Eruticulus glaber, ramis 
tetragonis internodiis I5-6 lin. longis. Eolia opposita, petiolata, oblonga vel 
elliptico-oblonga vel obovata, subacuta vel obtusa et apiculata, coriacea. Elores 
1-3-ni ad apices ramorum, pedicellati. Calyx campanulatus, profunde 5-lobus, 
lobis oblongis obtusis. Corolla 1-H poll, longa, subinfundibularis, curvata, lobis 
rotundatis obtusis. Stamina inclusa, tilamentis apice recurvis, antheris erectis. 
Ovarium ovoideum, glabrum, in styium elongatum angustatum, stigmate bilobo. 
A dwarf shrub, glabrous in all parts. Branches 4-angled, 1-H lin. thick, with 

internodes 1J-6 lin. long, leafy at the summit only, minutely tuberculate-rugulose. 


lieaves opposite, petiolate, coriaceous; petiole 1-2 J, lin. long; blade |-1| in. long, 
.'t 1 in. broad, oblong, elliptic or obovate, subacute or obtuse and apiculate, more or less 
acute at the base, slightly revolute along the margins, with the midrib impressed above, 
prominent beneath, and the veins invisible. Flowers terminal, solitary or in a sessile 
3- (or more?) flowered cyme. Pedicels 2-4 lin. long, rather stout, slightly rough from 
minute tubercles. Bracts and bracteoles ^-1 lin. long, acuminate. Calyx 3^-4 lin. 
long, eampanulate, deeply 5-lobed ; lobes 2|-3 lin. long, oblong, obtuse. Corolla 1-li 
in. long, somewhat funnel-shaped, 5-lobed, curved or oblique; lobes 3i-t£ lin. long and 
broad, suborbicular, contracted at the base. Stamens included; filaments filiform, 
recurved near the apex and then shortly curved upwards at the very apex ; anthers erect, 
2-2^ lin. long, oblong subobtuse, cordate at the base. Ovary ovoid, nan-owed into the 
5 lin. long style, with a shortly 2-lobed stigma. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 106, GVJ. 

A very distinct species, perhaps nearer to Lisianthus oralis, Ruiz A: Paw. than to any 
(it her. 

Lisianthus Elisabeth. k, Griseb. in Linnsea, xxii. (1849), p. to. 

Lisianthus aff. L. macrantho, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 279. 
Leiothamnus Elisabeths, It. H. Schomb. in Verh. des Ver. Beford. Gartenb. in Preuss. xviii.(1847), 
p. 155, t. 1 ; R. Schomb. Bot. Rem. Brit. Guiana, p. 77. 

Upper slopes and ledge of Mount Roraima, im Thum, 188 ; McConnell 8f Quelch, 
25. — Endemic. 


Hyduolea spinosa, Linu. Sp. PL ed. 1, p. 328. 

ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 262. Kotinga Valley, McConnell fy Quelch, 180. 
Savannahs generally, McConnell 8f Quelch, 313. 


Heliotropium strictissimuji, Moric. ?, PL Xouv. Am. p. 146, t. 87. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell A- Quelch, 220, 302. 


Ipomojia irengana, N. E. Brown, sp. ii. Caulis gracilis, volubilis, subpubescens, 

internodiis ^-1 poll, longis. Folia parva, petiolata, late cordata, obtusa, minute 

apiculata, supra velutina, subtus albo-tomentosa. Flores axillares, solitarii, pedi- 

cellati. Calycis lobi oblon^i, obtusi, puberuli. Corolla lj-lj poll, longa. extra 

pubescens, purpurea. 

Stems very slender, twining, woody below, slightly pubescent, with iuternodes ^-1 in. 

long. Leaves small ; petiole 2-5 lin. long, slender, terete, pubescent ; blade ^-1 in. long, 

|-| in. broad, cordate or roundish-cordate, obtuse, minutely apiculate, velvety-tomentose 

above, whitish-tomentose beneath. Flowers axillary, solitary. Pedicels 2-2 J lin. long, 

very minutely bracteolate at the base, pubescent. Sepals subequal, 8|-4 lin. long, 

If lin. broad, oblong, obtuse, thinly pubescent or puberulous. Corolla 1-j-H in. long, 

B 2 


funnel-shaped, pubescent outside, purple. Stamens included; filaments pubescent at 
their base. Ovary and style glabrous ; stigma of 2 globose lobes. 
Ireng Valley, on ant-hills, McConnell Sf Quelch, 251, 265. 

Jacquemontia evolvuloides, Meissn. in Mart. Fl. Bras. vii. p. 307. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 233. 

Evolvulus strictus, Benth. in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. v. (1846), p. 35 1 
Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 218, 219, 261. 

Evolvulus sericeus, Sw. Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. p. 55. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 215. 


Solanum crinitum, Lam. lllust. ii. p. 20. 

Ireng Valley, near Mataruka Mountain, McConnell Sf Quelch, 134. 

Beyricuia scutellarioides, Benth. Scroph. Ind. p. 9, in nota. 

B. ocymoides, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1889), p. 280, not of Cham. 
Upper slopes of Mount Roraitna, McConnell Sf Quelch, 5. — Trinidad and Brazil. 

Herpestis gratioloides, Benth. in Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. ii. (1836), p. 57. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 266. 

Gerardia hispidula, Mart. Nov. Gen. & Sp. iii. p. 13, t. 207. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 232. 

Buchnera palustris, Spreng. Syst. ii. p. 805. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 234. 

Buchnera, sp. Too imperfect for determination. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 236, 23S. 


Utricularia Humboldtii, R. H. Schomb. in Verb, des Ver. Beford. Gartenb. in Preuss. 

xv. (1841), p. 139, t. 3 ; R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, ii. p. 263, & iii. p. 1086 ; 

im Thurn & Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1889), pp. 256, 262, 265, 

267, 269, & 280. 
Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 3. — Also on the Kaieteur 

Utricularia alpina, Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. p. 11. 
U. montana, Jacq. Select. Stirp. Anier. p. 7, t. 6. 
Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, growing on trees, McConnell Sf Quelch, 43. Roraima 


Range, 3500 ft.. McConnell 8f Quelch, 718. — Also in the West Indies, Venezuela, 
Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador. 

Utricularia Campbellianum, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), 
p. 280, t. -14. f. B, & pp. 200, 207, & 270. 
Upi)er slopes of Mount Roraima, on trees, McConnell ty Queloh, 35. — Endemic. 

Utricularia Quelchii, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 10, tigs. 12-10.) Perennis. Eolia 

spathulata, longe petiolata, coriacea, glabra. Caulis 2-5 poll, altus, ]-2-squamosus, 

1-2-florus, glaber. Bractcae et bracteolae 2-3^ lin. longue, oblongaj vel elliptico- 

oblongse, obtusse, glabrae. Sepala magna, elliptica, obtusa. Corolla magna, labio 

superiore ovato et obtuso et apice recurvo, labio inferiore multo majore orbiculare 

reflexo, calcare ad medium abrupte procurvo subobtuso. — Utricularia aff. TJ. montana;, 

Jacq. ; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 280. 

Perennial. Roots fibrous and tuberous intermixed. Leaves all radical, erect, spathu- 

late, coriaceous, glabrous; petiole f-2 in. long; blade ^-1 in. long, 3-5 lin. broad, 

obovate or narrowly elliptic, obtuse, cuneately narrowed into the petiole. Stem 2-5 iu. 

long, ^-f lin. thick, 1-2-flowered, glabrous, bearing 1-2 lanceolate, acute, glabrous 

scales l-2i lin. long. Bracts and bracteoles subequal, basitixed, 2-3^ lin. long, 1-1^ lin. 

broad, oblong or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, glabrous, not ciliate. Pedicels 4-0 lin. long, 

glabrous. Sepals 4J-0 lin. long, 3|-4 lin. broad, elliptic, obtuse, concave, glabrous. 

Corolla large, glabrous, purple or deep red; upper lip 3-4 lin. long, included in the 

dorsal sepal, erect, recurved at the apex, ovate, obtuse, with the sides abruptly reflexed 

around the mouth, then again curved forwards; lower lip 7-9 lin. long, 8-15 lin. 

broad, abruptly retiexed from the mouth of the spur, suborbicular, very obtuse, entire; 

spur f-1 in. long, gradually tapering from the L 2h-'& lin. broad mouth to the obtuse apex, 

with the basal half hanging straight down and partly embraced by the lower sepal, and 

the apical half abruptly curved forwards or upwards. Stamens with thick clavate 

curved filaments, glabrous. Ovary globose, narrowed into a stout style, glabrous ; upper 

lip of the stigma narrow, lower lip very broad, very obtusely rounded or subtruncate. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 105, 083 ; im Thurn, 293. 

Allied to TJ. montana, Jacq., but smaller, with larger petioles to the leaves, broader 

bracts, and differently coloured flowers, which, to judge from the dried specimens, appear 

to have been either purple or deep red. Probably it is the plant mentioned by 

Mr. Quelch in ' Timehri,' vol. ix. p. 178, as "the beautiful crimson Utricularia montana," 

since the flowers of the true U. montana ( = U. aljjlna), Jacq. are white. 

Utricularia Connellii, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 10, figs. 1-0.) Aphylla, H-4 poll, 
alta. Caulis filiformis, 1-2-squamosus, glaber, 1-3-florus. Bractese et bracteolae 
minutae, ovatae vel oblongae, ciliatae. Sepala elliptica, multi-nervosa, nervis pubes- 
centibus ; sepalum inferius minutum, biiobum. Corolla ringens, glabra, labio 
superiore erecto, anguste subspathulato-oblongo, labio inferiore suborbiculare obtuso 
reflexo, calcare leviter curvato subacuto. 


Leafless at the time of flowering. Stems 1^—4 iu. high, filiform, glabrous, 1-2-flowered 
and bearing 1-2 minute, peltately attached, very minutely ciliate scales. Bracts \ lin. 
long, ovate, acute, peltately attached, minutely ciliate. Bracteoles slightly shorter than 
the bracts, basifixed, oblong, acute, minutely ciliate. Pedicels 1-2 lin. long, glabrous. 
Sepals about 1^ lin. long, the upper nearly 1 lin. broad, ovate, subacute, the lower 
rather broader, emarginate at the apex, both deeply concave, strongly nerved, with a few 
short hairs scattered along the nerves. Corolla ringent ; upper lip erect, 3-3^ lin. long. 
j-1 lin. broad, subspathulate-oblong, obtuse, with recurved margins, minutely puberulous 
inside at the base ; lower lip 4-5 lin. long, about 4 lin. broad, suborbicular, obtuse, 
abruptly deflexed from the mouth of the spur, where it is minutely puberulous. Spur 
4-|-5^ lin. long, nearly in a line with the upper lip, slightly curved forwards, gradually 
tapering from the \h lin. broad base to the subacute apex, compressed. Filaments of 
the stamens incurved, clavate, glabrous. Ovary ovoid, narrowed into a short style, 
glabrous; stigma with a narrow acute upper lip and a broadly ovate obtuse lower lip. 

Arabapu River, McConnell §r Quelch, 127. 

Allied to U. cornuta, Michx., but smaller, more slender, and with a more reflexed lower 
lip to the corolla. 

Utkicularia roraimensis, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 11, figs. 1-4.) Perennis. Poha 

radicalia, orbiculato-spathulata, 3-7 lin. longa. Caulcs simplices vel divisi, 11-3 

poll, longi, subfiliformi, 1-2-flori, 1-3-squamosi, glabri. Bracteae minutae, trifidse. 

Plores parvi, pedicellati. Sepala insequalia, glabra; sepalum superius ellipticum, 

obtusum, profunde concavum; inferius brevius, subquadratum, truncatum. Corollae 

labium posticum ovatum, obtusum, intra minute glandulosum ; labium anticum 

late subreniforme breviter 3-lobum, abrupte reflexum, minute glandulosum ; calcar 

late conicum, obtusum, minute glandulosum. 

Perennial. Leaves all radical, spathulate, glabrous; petiole 2-5 lin. long, slender; 

blade 1-2 lin. long, |-lf lin. broad, obovate or orbicular, obtuse, cuneate at the base. 

Stems 1-4 to a plant, simple or once branched, 1^-3 in. high, subfiliform, 1-2-flowered, 

glabrous, bearing 1-3 minute, oblong, obtuse, glabrous scales. Bracts minute, trifid, 

with the lateral teeth narrow and acute, and the middle tooth broadly rounded, glabrous, 

not ciliate. Pedicels l-2i lin. long, filiform, erect. Sepals unequal, thin, glabrous; 

the upper f-1 lin. long, elliptic or elliptic-ovate, obtuse, deeply concave, with about 4 

rather obscure veins ; the lower -J lin. long, and about the same in breadth, subquadrate, 

truncate or very slightly emarginate, 1-veined. Corolla small ; upper lip 1-1^ lin. long, 

|-f lin. broad, ovate, obtuse, concave, erect or ascending, minutely glandular within ; 

lower lip 1^-li lin. long, 2 lin. broad, subreniform, shortly 3-lobed, and more or less 

undulated, abruptly reflexed from the mouth of the spur on which it rests, minutely 

glandular on the lower part; spur H lin. long, 1} lin. broad at the mouth, broadly 

conical, obtuse, compressed, minutely glandular, directed at a right angle to the pedicel. 

Stamens with curved clavate filaments, glabrous. Ovary globose, abruptly contracted 

into a stout style, glabrous; stigma with a minute tooth-like upper lip and a large 

truncate lower lip. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft,, McConnell fy Quelch, 685. 


Utricular! a concinna, N. E. Brown, sp. q. (Plate 10, dgs. 7-11.) Pasilla, glabra. 
Pedunculus uniflorus, f-1 poll, longus. Bracteae ft bracteolse lanceolata-, obtusse. 
Sepala magna, cordato-ovata. Corolla erecta, labiis calyce paulo longioribus, 
glabris, labio superiore elliptico vel subrectangulare el apice obscure 3-crenato, 

lal)io infcriore elliptico vel subrectangulare andulato-crenato ; calcar labiis multo 
longius, erectum, acutum, prope apicem parcissime pilosulum. 

Leaves 2-4, all radical, :> 5 lin. long, lanceolate, elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse 
or subacute, tapering into a short petiole at the base, glabrous, erect. Peduncle £-3 in. 
high, 1-flowered, slender, with two distant minute bracts, one near the middle, the 
other near the base, glabrous. Flowering-bract §— 1^ lin. Long, lanceolate, subobtuse, 
glabrous, not ciliate. Bracteoles resembling the flowering-bract, but shorter and 
narrower. Pedicel 2-3 lin. long, glabrous. Sepals 2, erect, large in proportion to the 
corolla, 2h-Xl lin. long, 2-2^ lin. broad, cordate-ovate, obtuse, glabrous, not ciliate. 
Corolla erect, with the lips only slightly exceeding the sepals, and the spur about twice as 
long; upper lip 1^-2 lin. long, and about the same in breadth, elliptic or subrectangular, 
obscurely 3-crenate at the apex, with recurved margins, glabrous ; lower lip about 2 ' -2 v 
lin. long, elliptic or subrectangular, crenate and wavy at the apex, with the margins 
recurved, glabrous ; spur about 3J-3| lin. long, erect, acute, with a few scattered hairs 
on the terminal half. Stamens glabrous. Ovary globose-ovoid, narrowed into a short 
stout style, glabrous; stigma with a narrow acute upper lip and a broad emarginate 
lower lip. Capsule about half as long as the sepals, ellipsoidal, obtuse, crowned with the 
short style and stigma. 

Kaieteur Savannah, Jenman, 1 272 ; Mazaruni River, 300 ft.. McConnell fy Quelch, 710 ; 
and without precise locality, Schomburgk, 131. 

The flowers of this diminutive species are stated by Messrs. McConnell and Quelch to 
be "white with purple points." 1 have only seen one corolla, and am uncertain if my 
description of it is quite correct in all details, as it was very much flattened; but my 
drawings of it (tigs. S & 0) represent its general appearance as nearly as the material 
would allow, although they may not be accurate. The affinity of 77. concinna is with 
77. Campbelliana, Oliver, and 77. montana, Jacq., although it is very much smaller than 
either of those species. 

Utricularia nervosa, Weber ?, ex Benj. in Mart. PI. Bras. x. p. 217. 

Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell A' Quelch, 3«. 

Possibly a distinct species, but the material consists of one flowering stem only, which 
scarcely admits of proper dissection ; externally, however, it much resembles 77. nervosa} 
which is a Brazilian species. 

Utricularia sp. 

Arabapu River, McConnell 8f (Quelch, 150^. 

The specimen consists of leafy rhizomes without flowers, which were found entangled 
amongst the pitchers and false roots of Genlisea guicmensis, X. E. Brown. 


Genlisea guianensis, N. E. Brown, in Hooker, Icones Plant, t. 2629. 

Arabapu River, McConnell Sf Quelch, 150. 

This is the largest species of this genus at present discovered, and more nearly 
resembles O. africana, Oliver, (a native of Angola), than any other with which I am 
acquainted. The members of the genus Genlisea appear to be quite destitute of true 
roots, their place being supplied by modified leaves, which descend into the soil or water. 
Some of these modified leaves terminate in the curious tubular two-lobed utricles 
characteristic of the genus, others being quite simple and root-like; probably all fulfil 
the functions of roots, and the utricles supply an additional amouut of nitrogen to the 
plants by the absorption of the decomposed remains of the minute animaleula? they 
capture. The utricles have a very remarkable structure, which will be found well 
described and illustrated in Darwin's ' Insectivorous Plants,' p. 146, and Goebel's 
' Pflanzenbiologische Schilderungen,' ii. p. 121, t. 15-16. 

Genlisea roraimensis, N. E. Brown, sp. n. (Plate 11, figs. 5-12.) Eolia obovato" 
vel rotundato-spathulata, crassiuscula vel subcoriacea, glabra. Utriculi hi formes, 
alter apice bilobus, alter apice acutus, minute 1-porosi. Caulis 1^-3 poll, longus, 
3-6-squamosus, minute glanduloso-hirtellus, 1-4-florus. Bracteae et bracteola; 
minutae, lanceolatae, acuta?. Pedicelli minute gland uloso-hirtelli. Calyx 5-lobus, 
minute pubescens. Corolla parva, lutea, labio superiore late ovato vel clliptico- 
ovato obtuso concavo glabro, labio inferiore reflexo obtuse trilobo glabro, calcari 
late conico obtusissimo minute glanduloso-birtello. 
A perennial with a very short branching rhizome densely covered with leaves. Leaves 
rosulate, 3-5 lift, long, J-f lin. broad, obovate- or orbicular-spathulate, rather thick or 
subcoriaceous, glabrous. Utricles 2^-5 lin. long, of two forms, both tubular and ovoid- 
inflated at the base and descending into the soil among the roots, one (the perfect form) 
dividing at the mouth into two long twisted lobes, the other (a transition form) acute, 
with a very minute orifice at the apex and entirely without lobes; a third and imperfect 
form is sometimes present standing erect among the leaves in which the terminal lobes 
are very short and scarcely or not at all twisted. Stem simple, 1^-3 in. high, J— J lin. 
thick, 1-4-flowered, minutely and rather sparsely glandular-hairy, bearing 3-6 lanceolate, 
acute, basifixed, glabrous scales about f lin. long. Bracts and bracteoles subequal, 
basifixed, about f lin. long, lanceolate, acute, sparsely pubescent and ciliate. Pedicels 
1-2 lin. long, glandular-pubescent. Calyx 5-lobed almost to the base ; lobes f-1 
lin. long, oblong-lanceolate, acute, thinly pubescent and slightly ciliate. Corolla 
small, yellow; upper lip \h lin. long, 1 lin. broad, broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate, obtuse, 
concave, glabrous ; lower lip 2 lin. long and as much in breadth, reflexed, obtusely 
3dobed, glabrous ; spur \\ lin. long, 1\ lin. broad at the mouth, stout, conical, very 
obtuse, compressed, slightly and minutely glandular-hairy, and darker in colour than the 
rest of the flower. Stamens glabrous; filaments curved, clavate; anthers deep blue. 
Ovary globose, thinly covered with very minute hairs; style short; stigma oblique. 
Capsule globose, about 1 lin. diara., minutely and sparsely haiiy. 

Summit of Mount Borainia, 8600 feet, growing in a somewhat sandy boggy soil, 
McConnell 8f Quelch, 684. 



Tabebuia Roraim-K, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 280, t. 15. 
Upper slopes of Mount Knraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, '.VS. — Endemic. 


Ruellia Vinbex, Mart, ex Nees in Mart. El. Bras. ix. p. 12. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 253. 

Thyrsacanthus Scuo.miu kgkianus, Nees, in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. iv. (1845), p. 636. 
Upper Essequelio River, Mr Cot/net I Sf Quelrh, 277. 

Dianthera guianensis, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Caulis bifariam pubescens. Eolia 

subsessilia, lanceolata vel ovato-lanceolata, acuta, basi angustata rotundata, 

utrinque glabra vel sparsim pubescentia. Tbyrsus terminalis, subspiciformis. 

pedunculatus. Bractese et bracteote lineari-lanceolatas, acutissirnse, subglabrae, 

ciliatae. Sepala 5, libera, lineari-lanceolata, acutissima, pnbescentia, eiliata. Corolla 

superne pubescens, labio superiore oblongo marginibus reflexo apice minute bilobo, 

labio inferiore 3-lobo disco plicato-elevato. — Justicia sp., Oliver, in Trans. Linn. 

Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 280. 

Shrubby, with terete, bii'ariously pubescent brandies. Leaves spreading, subsessile, 

2-1 in. long, 7-18 lin. broad, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, acute, narrowed below the 

middle to a rounded base, glabrous or sparsely pubescent on both sides. Peduncles 

terminal, f-3| in. long, naked or bibracteate. Thyrsus spike-like, moderately dense. 

1-2^ in. long, 1-1A in. diam. Bracts and bracteoles 'l\-2>\ lin. long, linear-lanceolate, 

very acute, glabrous or slightly pubescent and slightly eiliate. Sepals 5, free, 3-3^ 

lin. long. | lin. broad, linear-lanceolate, very acuminate, pubescent, eiliate. Corolla 

two-lipped, pubescent in the upper part outside, apparently purple or red, spotted with 

darker; tube \ in. long; upper lip 4| in. long, oblong, with reflexed margins and 

minutely 2-lobed at the apex; lower lip oh lin. long, 3-lobed, with an elevated plicate 

disk. Stamens 2, inserted at the middle of the tube ; anthers 2-celled, with unequal 

cells, obtuse at each end, separated by a broad connective. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell fy Quelch, 188 ; Kukenaam Valley, vm Thurn, 81 ; Mount 
Roraima, Appun, 1387. 

Lippia SciioMBURGKiAXA, Schauer, in DC. Prod. xi. p. 577 ; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 2S0. 
Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell Sf Qnelrh, 2; Roraima Range, 3500 it., 
McConnell 8f Quelch, 720; Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 235. 

I doubt if this Guiana plant is really distinct from the Brazilian L. glandulosa, 
Schauer, described at the same place. 



Stachytarpheta mutabieis, Vahl, Eiium. i. p. 208. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 245. 


Hyptis arborea, Bentli. in DC. Prod. xii. p. 132. 
Kotinga Valley, McCoanell 8f quelch, 142, 184. 


Gomphrena globosa, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1, p. 224. 
At Pelepowta Village in the Ireng Valley, McConnell 8r Quelch, 210. 

Phytolacca thyrsiflora, Fenzl, ex J. A. Schmidt in Mart. PI. Bras. ii. p. 343. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 152. 

Boupala Montana, Aubl. PL Guian. i. p. 83. 
Savannahs generally, McConnell Sf Quelch, 310. 


Phoradendron RORAiMyE, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 281, 
and pp. 267, 269. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 82, 6S0. — Endemic. 


Burmannia bicolor, Mart. Nov. Gen. & Sp. i. p. 10, t. 5 ; R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.- 
Guiana, iii. p. 1066. 
Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 14. — Widely dispersed in 
Tropical America from Cuba to Brazil, westward to Peru. 

OBCHLDACEiE. By B. A. Rolfe, A.L.S. 

Pleurotkallis roraimensis, Rolfe, sp. n. Lepanthiformis, caulibus gracilibus, vaginis 

apice ciliatis. Folia elliptica vel obovato-elliptica, minute apiculata, parva. Scapi 

subelongati, gracillimi, pauciflori. Bractese spathacese. Sepalum posticum basi 

ovatum, apice caudato-acuminatum ; sepala lateralia subsimilia, basi angustiora. 

Petala oblonga, obtusa. Labellum trilobum, lobis lateralibus rotundatis, intermedio 

oblongo obtuso. 

Stems slender, ^ in. long, clothed with three or four angular or striate sheaths, 

broader and ciliate at the apex. Leaves elliptical or obovate-clliptical, minutely 

apiculate, 2^-4 lin. long, l|-2 lin. broad. Scapes very slender, f-1 in. long, about 2- or 



3-flowered. Bracts spathaceous, minute. Pedicels 1/, lin. long. Dorsal sepal ovate at 
the base, caudate-acuminate above, 2 lin. long; lateral similar, but narrower at the base. 
Petals oblong, obtuse, 1 lin. long, thinly membranaceous. Lip trilobed, 1 lin. long; 
side lobes spreading, broadly rounded; front lobe oblong, obtuse; disc bearing a pair of 
thickened nerves. Column clavate, f lin. long. 

Roraima, summit, 8(500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 087. — Endemic. 

Allied to the Colombian Pleurothallis intricata, Lindl., but smaller in all its parts, 
besides being different in structure. The species of the natural group Lepanthiformes, 
to which it belongs, were distributed by Lindley into three sections, owing to the 
exigencies of an admittedly artificial arrangement, which would place the present one 
in the section Acwndnatce. 

Stems gtjianensis, RollV. sp. n. Csespitosa. Caules brevissimi. Folia oblanceolato- 
oblonga, subobtusa, basi subattenuata. Scapi graciles, multiflori. Bracteaj 
triangulari-ovata-, acutse. Pedicelli breves. Sepala orbieulari-ovata, obtusa, basi 
connata. Petala suborbieularia, concava. Labellum integrum, suborbiculure, 
petalis paullo angustius. 
A dwarf, densely-tufted plant, with very short stems. Leaves oblanceolate-oblong, 
subobtuse, somewhat attenuate at the base, 4-9 lin. long, li-2 lin. broad. Scapes 
slender, 2^ in. long, many-flowered. Bracts triangular-ovate, acute, \ lin. long. Pediceb 
f lin. long. Sepals orbicular-ovate, obtuse, f lin. long, slightly pubescent, the basal 
fourth connate. Petals broadlv orbicular, somewhat concave, not half as long as the 
sepals. Lip entire, rather narrower than the petals, but otherwise very similar. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell ty Quelch, 703. — Endemic. 

A species belonging to Lindley's small group MonastachycB apodce, and allied to the 
Peruvian S. ptmlla, H. B. & K. A specimen collected at the Kaieteur Savannah, 
Potaro River, British Guiana, by Jenman (1055), is either a form of the same or a 
closely allied species. 

Brachionidium brevicatjdatum, Rolfe, sp. n. Caulis primarius repens, brevis; 

secundarius brevissimus. Polia breviter petiolata, elliptico-lanceolata, tridenticu- 

lata. Pedunculi lili formes, uniflori. Bractese apice acuminata?. Sepalum posticum 

ovatum, apice abrupte acuminatum vel brevissime caudatum; sepala lateralia 

omnino connata et postico subsimilia. Petala ovata. acuminata vel brevissime 

caudata, margine plus minusve ciliata. Labellum sessile, trilobum, lobis lateralibus 

falcato-oblongis subobtusis, intermedio reflexo late ovato-rotundato. Columna lata. 

Primary stem creeping, with short internodes, clothed with membranaceous sheaths ; 

secondary very short, clothed with about two tubular membranaceous sheaths having a 

short acuminate apex. Leaves shortly petioled, elliptical-lanceolate, shortly tricuspidate, 

8-10 lin. long. 2^-3| lin. broad ; petioles 1^-2 lin. long. Peduncles slender, f-lj in. 

long, bearing a short tubular acuminate sheath above the middle. Bract similar to the 

sheath but rather larger. Dorsal sepal ovate, abruptly acuminate or shortly caudate, 

4 lin. long by nearly 3 lin. broad, trincrved ; lateral pair united into a body closely 

resembling the dorsal sepal, but rather broader and 1-nerved. Petals ovate, shortly 



acuminate, 3 lin. long, more or less ciliate, trinerved. Lip sessile, lh liu- long, trilobed ; 
side lobes falcate-oblong, subobtuse, suberect ; front lol)e reflexed, broadly rounded- 
oblong; disc with a slightly elevated crest between the side lobes. Column broad, 
h lin. long. 

Rorai ma range, 3500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 705. — Endemic. 

An interesting addition to this small genus, readily distinguished from its allies by 
the short secondary stem, and short tails to the sepals and petals. 

Masbevallia picturata, Reichb. f. Otia Bot. Hamb. 16 ; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 281 ; Woolw. Masd. p. 87, t. 31, 

Roraima, at 3500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 704; Upper slope, im Tlmm, 279. 

In the mountains of Colombia, between 2500 and 6500 ft. elevation ; extending along 
the Coast Andes of Venezuela to Caracas, at 6000 to 6500 ft, ; also in Costa Rica. 
Roraima seems to be an outlying station for the species. 

Octomeria Connellii, Rolfe, sp. n. Caules secuudarii elongati. Folia subsessilia, 
oblongo-lanceolata, subobtusa, crasso-coriacea. Flores subfasciculati, mediocres. 
Sepala et petala ovato-lanceolata, subobtusa. Labellum oblongum, subconcavum, 
obtusum vel obscure tridentatum, margine minutissime crenulatum. 
Secondary stems stout, elongate, 4-12 in. long, clothed with four or five tubular 
sheaths 1-1 h in- long. Leaf subsessile, thickly coriaceous or somewhat fleshy, oblong- 
lanceolate, subobtuse, 2-4 in. long, 4-10 lin. broad. Flowers few, or produced mostly 
in succession, medium-sized, shortly pedicelled. Sepals and petals ovate-lanceolate, 
subobtuse, 4-6 lin. long. Lip oblong, somewhat concave, obtuse or obscurely tridentate, 
margin minutely crenulate, 3-4 lin. long. Column clavate, 1± lin. long. 
Roraima, summit at 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 700.— Endemic. 
A very distinct species, having stems much longer than the leaves, and flowers 
comparatively large for the genus. It is comparable with 0. grandiflora, Lindl., but has 
longer stems, much shorter leaves, and the lip very different in struct nre. 

Octomeria parvifolia, Rolfe, sp. n. Caespitosa. Caules secuudarii graciles, vaginis 
tubulosis striatis obtecti. Folia lineari-oblonga, subacuta, parva. Flores fasciculati. 
Sepala ovato-oblonga, subobtusa. Petala lineari-oblonga, subobtusa. Labellum 
late deltoideo-trilobum, lobis lateralibus divergentibus anguste triangularibus, 
intermedio breviter et late triangulari obtuso. 
Secondary stems densely tufted, slender, 2^-3 in. long, clothed with about five or six 
tubular striate sheaths. Leaves linear-oblong, subacute, f-lj in. long, 1-1| lin. broad, 
base somewhat attenuate. Flowers fasciculate. Pedicels very short. Sepals ovate- 
oblong, subobtuse, 1 lin. long. Petals linear-oblong, subobtuse, 1 lin. long. Lip broadly 
deltoid-triangular, over h lin. broad; side lobes narrowly triangular, subobtuse ; front 
lobe broadly triangular, obtuse ; disc with a pair of thickened slightly arcuate keels in 
the centre, and a shorter one in front. Column short. 

Roraima, summit, 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 69(5.— Endemic. 

In the relatively small proportion which the leaf bears to the rest of the plant, this 


species approaches the Brazilian Octomeria breviflora, Cogn., but the structure of the lip 
is very different. 

Bulbopiiyllum RoiiAi.M ense, Rolfe, sp. ii. Racemus multillorus. Bracteae oblongse 
vel ovato-oblongse, acutse. Sepala ovato-lanceolata, acuminata, lateralia carinata. 
Petala ovato-oblonga, subaeuta. Labellum velulinuni, pandurato-oblongum, 
obtusum, medio ad basin lateraliter compressum, basi utrinque aurieulatum, disco 
elevato bicarinato. Columna brcvis, utrinque bidentata. 
Scape moderately slender ; raceme 3 in. long, many-flowered. Bracts oblong or ovate- 
oblong, acute, 2^—3 lin. long. Pedicels 1 lin. long. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 
4-5i lin. long, lateral carinate. Petals ovate-oblong, subacute, 1^ lin. long. Lip 2| lin. 
long, velvety, pandurate-oblong, obtuse ; front lobe expanded into an ovate-oblong' blade, 
middle and base laterally compressed, with a rounded erect basal auricle on either side ; 
disc much elevated and channelled between the pair of obtuse keels. Column stout, 
1 lin. long, with two pairs of teeth ; upper pair subulate-filiform, incurved, with a broad 
base, as long as the column, lower pair subulate-oblong, a third as long as the upper. 
Boraima, summit, 8600 ft., McConuell ty Quelch, 103. — Endemic. 
Allied to B. geraense, Reichb. f., but the scape and raceme more slender, the sepals 
proportionately broader, and the lip and teeth of the column different in detail. It is 
described from a single scape. 

Elleanthus linifolius, Presl, Rel. Haenk. p. 97. 

Ireng Valley, McCormell 8f Quelch, 301. Roraima, Schomburgk. — Also found in 
Cuba, Porto Rico, Nicaragua, Panama, Guiana, Brazil, and Bolivia. 

Diacrium bicornutum, Benth. in Journ. Linn. Soc., Bot. xviii. (1881), p. 312. 

Kwaimatta Savannah, McConuell ty Quelch, 280. — Also found in Guiana, Trinidad, 
and Tobago. 


Epidexdrum graniticum, Lindl. in Hook. Journ. Bot. iii. (1841), p. 83. 

Kwaimatta Savannah, Rupununi River, McConuell 8f Quelch, 279. Ireng River, 
im Thuru, 13. — Pound in British and Dutch Guiana, and Trinidad. 

Nearly allied to E. oncidioides, Lindl., with which it is made synonymous by Lindl ey. 

Epidexdrum Schombi r<;kii, Lindl. Bot. Reg. (1838), Misc. p. 15; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 281. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 135. " Elowers red, of all shades." — Pound in 
Trinidad, Guiana, Brazil, and Bolivia. 

Epidexdrum eulgkxs, Brongn. in Duperry, Voy. Coquille, Pban. p. 196, t. 43 ; Rolfe, in 
Orch. Rev. v. (1897), p. 264. 
E. Schomburgkii, var. conjiuens, Lindl. Fol. Orch., Epideiulr. p. 70. 
E. Schomburgkii, Appun, Unter den Tropcn, ii. p. 199 (non Lindl.). 


Roraima. upper slopes, McCownell Sf Quelch, 1. North of Eoraima, Appun, 1202. 

" Abundant." Found in British Guiana, and the Brazilian provinces of Rio de Janeiro 

and Santa Catherina. 

Epidendrtjm elongattjm, Jacq. Coll. iii. p. 260 ; and Ic. PL liar. iii. p. 17, t, 601 ; Bidl. 
in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 281. 
Eoraima, summit, at 8600 ft., McCormell S/ Quelch, 686. South side, at 5500 ft., 

im Thurn, 42. Found in the Windward Islands, W. Indies, from Antigua to Trinidad, 

also in Guiana, Brazil, and Bolivia. 

Epidendrtjm alsum, Bidl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 281. 

Eoraima, summit, 8600 ft., McConnell Sr Quelch, 90, 699; im Thuru, 296.— Endemic. 

Epidendrtjm Imthurnii, Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 282, 

t. 46. fig. A. 
Eoraima, summit, 8600 ft,, McConnell S; Quelch, 097 ; im 'Limn,, 299.— Endemic. 

Epidendrtjm montigenum, Eidl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 282. 

Eoraima, ripper slopes and summit. McConnell Sf Quelch, 37, 694 ; ledge and top, 
im Thuru, 322.— Endemic. 

Epidendrtjm violascens, Eidl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 282, 

t. 46. fig. B. 
Eoraima, summit, 8600 ft., McConnell Sr Quelch, 81, 695 ; im Thuru, 300.— Endemic. 

Galeandra juncea, Lindl. Sert. Orch. sub t. 37. 

Ireng Valley, McConnell Sr Quelch. 243.— Also found in Guiana and Brazil. 

Cyrtopodium Andersonii, E. Br. in Ait Hort. Kew. ed. 2, v. p. 216. 

Kanuku Mts., McCouucll Sf Quelch, 276.— Also found in Guiana, Brazil, and 

Cyrtopodium cristatum, Lindl. Bot. Eeg. (1841), sub t. 8. 

Kotino-a Vallev, amid stones on hill, McConnell Sf Quelch, 136. " Flowers yellow and 
brown." — Also found in Trinidad, Guiana, and Brazil. 

Zygopetalum Burkei, Eeichb. f. in Gard. Chron. xx. (1883), p. 684 ; Eidl. in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 282. 
Z. Machaii, R. Scliomb. Reisen in Bnt.-Guiana, ii. p. 266, iii. p. 1068; Appun, Unter den Tropen, ii. 

pp. 246, 292 (non Hook.). 
Eoraima, upper slopes, McCouuell Sp Quelch, 26. "Flowers coffee-coloured." Soutb 
side, at 5500 ft., im Thurn, 50. South and east sides, Appun, 1390.— Endemic. 


Eriopsis Scuomburgkii, Reiehb. I'. in Bonplandia, iii. (1855), p. 07. 

Pseudoeriopsis Schomburgkii, Reichb. f. in Linnsca, xxii. (1819), p. 85:$; R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.- 

Guiuiia, iii. p. 1123. 

Roraitna, upper slopes, McCotmell §f Qnelch, Di. " Mowers brown." Schomburgk, 
1679 a. — Also in the savannah of South Guiana. 

Houlletia roraimensis, Rolfe, sp. n. Polia elliptico-lanceolata, magna. Scapus 

arcuatus, 7-9-florus. Bracteoe oblongse, subobtusse, concuvse. Sepala orbiculari- 

elliptica, concava. Petala orbiculari-clliptica, plana. Labellum prof unde trilobum ; 

lobi laterales late oblongi, truncati, oblique apieulatis ; intermedins breviter 

unguiculatus, late trulliformis, apiculatus, callo transverso submembranaceo ad basin 

unguem sito. Columna clavata. 

Leaf petiolate. elliptico-lanceolate, acute, 1| ft. long, li in. broad. Scape arching 

(base not seen) ; raceme 7-9-flowered. Bracts oblong, subobtuse, concave, 6-7 lin. long. 

Pedicels 1-1J in. long. Sepals orbicular-elliptical, concave, 9-11 lin. long, 7-9 lin. 

broad. Petals orbicular-elliptical, nearly flat, 9-10 lin. long, 7-8 lin. broad. Lip deeply 

3-lobed ; side lobes broadly oblong, nearly truncate and obliquely apiculate, 6 lin. long, 

3^ lin. broad, connected at the base by a suberect, transverse, stout, undulate membrane, 

and with a somewhat similar connecting callus at the junction of the front lobe, but 

more distinctly toothed ; front lobe shortly and broadly unguiculate, broadly trulliform, 

abruptly apiculate, and with subacute lateral angles, 5 lin. long by nearly as broad. 

Column clavate, curved, 5 lin. long. 

Roraima, upper slopes, Ma Council Sf Quelch, 29. — Endemic. 

A very distinct species, nearest H. Lowiana, Reichb. f., in structure, but very different 
in the. broad nearly truncate side lobes of the lip, and more like H. Brochlehurstiana, 
Lindl., in habit. 

Catasetum discolor, Lindl. Bot. Reg. (1844), Misc. p. 31. 

Roraima, upper slopes, McCormell 8f Quelch, 6. — Also found in Guiana, Brazil, and 


Maxillaria Coxxellii, Rolfe, sp. n. Eolia oblongo-lanceolata, acuta, basi in petiolum 

attenuata. Scapus foliis brevior, vaginis ovato-lanceolatis acutis subimbricatis 

obtectus. Bractea oblongo-lanceolata, acuta. Sepala subobtusa et minute apiculata ; 

sepalum lateralia triangulari-oblonga ; posticum oblongo-lanceolatum. Petala 

oblongo-lanceolata, subacuta. Labellum elliptico-oblongum, obtusum, subundu- 

latum, apice recurvum, callo oblongo apice dilatato truncato. Columna brevis 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute, attenuate at the base, 6-8 in. long, 9-12 lin. broad. 

Scape 3g-4 in. long, covered with ovate-lanceolate acute sheaths, 6-9 lin. long and 

someAvhat imbricate at the base. Bract oblong-lanceolate, acute, 9-12 lin. long. 

Sepals subobtuse and minutely apiculate, dorsal oblong-lanceolate, 7-8 lin. long ; lateral 

triangular-oblong, 8-9 lin. long. Petals oblong-lanceolate, subacute, 7-8 lin. Ion?. 

Lip elliptical-oblong, obtuse, somewhat undulate, recurved at the apex, rather fleshy, 


5-6 lin. long ; callus oblong, dilated and truncate at the apex. Column stout, free part 
scarcely 2 lin. long, with a much longer foot. Mentum rounded, obtuse, 3 lin. long. 

Roraima : Kotinga Valley, 3IcC'omiell 8f Quelch, 137. — Endemic. 

Allied to the Colombian Maxillaria melina, Lindl., but the leaves smaller, sheaths 
of the scape shorter, and with various differences in the structure of the flower. 

Maxillaria Qtjelchii, Rolfe, sp. n. Subcaulescens, vaginis imbricatis multistriatis. 
Pseudobulbi compressi, apice monophylli. Folia oblonga, subobtusa, conduplicata. 
Scapi foliis subtcquales, vaginis lanceolatis sul)iml)ricatis obtecti. Bractea lanceolata, 
acuminata. Sepala oblongo-lanceolata, acuta. Petala lineari-lanceolata, acuta, 
sepalis breviora. Labellum trilobum, lobis lateralibus erectis rotundato-oblongis 
membranaceis, intermedio recurvo obovato-orbiculari obscure tricuspidato medio 
carnoso lateribus incur vo, callo oblongo obtuso concavo. 
Subcaulescent, with the stems clothed with conduplicate, triangular-lanceolate, acute, 
closely striate, imbricating sheaths, 1-2 in. long, and partly enveloping the pseudobulbs. 
Pseudobulbs compressed, broadly oblong, shining and puncticulate, wrinkled when old, 
1 in. long, | in. broad, monophyllous at the apex. Leaves conduplicate, lanceolate- 
oblong, subobtuse, 3-4 in. long, f-1 in. broad. Scapes 3-4 in. long, bearing 5-7 
lanceolate, acute, striate, somewhat imbricating sheaths, 0-12 lin. long. Bract resembling 
the sheaths, 10-12 lin. long. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, lh in. long. Petals 
linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 1| in. long. Lip h in. long, 3-lobed ; side lobes erect, 
rounded-oblong, membranaceous, 1 lin. long, 1^ lin. broad; middle lobe recurved, 
obovate-orbicular, obscurely tricuspidate at the apex, 2 lin. broad by nearly as long, 
thickened along the centre and incurved at the sides ; crest oblong, obtuse, concave. 
Column clavate, incurved, 3 lin. long. 

Roraima, summit, at 8600 ft, alt., Mc Council fy Quelch, 690.— Endemic. 
Allied to the Peruvian M. floribunda, Lindl., but much less scandent, and smaller in 
all its parts. 

Oncidium orthostates, Ridl in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1S87), p. 283. 

Kwaimatta Savannah, McConnell §• Quelch, 281. Ireng River, im Thurn, 12.— Also 
found at Mimatta, on the Rupununi River. 

Sobralia stenophylla. Lindl. Eol. Orch., Sobral. p. 2; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. 
ii. (1887), p. 283. 
Kotinga River, McConnell $~ Quelch, 117. Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 329. 
Ipelemouta, Arapu River, im Thurn, 19. Roraima, Appnn, 1076. — Endemic. 

Epistephium lucidum, Cogn. in Mart. Fl. Bras. iii. pt. iv. p. 141, t, 30. 
Roraima, upper slopes, McConnell 8f Quelch, 32.— Also found in Brazil. 

Epistephium parviflorim, Lindl. Gen. & Sp. Orch. p. 433. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 160. — Also found in Trinidad and elsewhere in 
British Guiana. 


Simrantuks bifida, Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 283. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 200. Roraima, summit, 8600 it. alt,, McConnell 
8r Quelch, 692. South side at 5500 ft., im Thurn, 342.— Endemic. 

POGONIA parviflora, Iteiehl). f. Xen. Orch. ii. p. 90 ; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. 11. 
Bot. ii. (1887), p. 283. 
Iloraima, upper slopes, McConnell Sf Quelch, 30. "Flowers pink and waxy." South 
side at 5500 ft., im Thurn, 115. — Endemic. 

Pogonia tenuis, Reichb. f. in Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. p. 637. 

Roraima, summit, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 691. — Also found in Trinidad, 
Venezuela, and on the Upper Amazon. 

Habenaria Moritzii, Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 28 t. 

Roraima, upper slopes, McConnell Sf Quelch, 4; at 4000 ft., im Thurn, 367. — Also 
found in Venezuela. 

Habenaria roraimensis, Rolfe, sp. n. Planta erecta, foliosa. Folia caulina, basi 

lanceolata, acuta, superiora gradatim in vaginas bracteiformes decrescentia. Bracteae 

lanceolatae, acuminata?. Sepalum posticum erectum, ovatum, apiculatum ; sepala 

lateralia patentia, oblique ovato-oblonga, apiculata. Petala tripartita, lobo postico 

falcato-oblongo apiculato, antico filiformi-lineari arcuato. Labellum tripartitum ; 

lobi laterales filiformi-lineares divergentes ; lobus intermedins linearis obtusus ; 

calcar clavatum. 

Plant A-lj- ft. high, somewhat leafy. Leaves cauline, the lower lanceolate, acute, 

2-2g lin. long, 4-5 bin. broad ; upper smaller, decreasing upwards into bract-like sheaths. 

Bracts lanceolate, acuminate, 6-9 lin. long. Dorsal sepal erect, ovate, apiculate, 2-2| 

lin. long, lateral spreading obliquely, ovate-oblong, apiculate, 2-2^ lin. long. Petals 

bipartite; upper lobe falcate-oblong, apiculate, 1J-2 lin. long; lower lobe filiform-linear, 

curved, shorter than the upper. Lip tripartite ; side-lobes filiform-linear, diverging, 1^-2 

lin. long; front lobe linear, obtuse, 2-2| lin. long; spur linear-clavate, 4-5 lin. long. 

Anther-channels and stigmatic processes short. 

Roraima, summit, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 698. — Endemic. 

Allied to H. prcdensis, Reichb. f., but readily distinguished by its much smaller 

Phragmipedium Klotzschianum, Rolfe, in Orch. R-ev. iv. (1896), p. 332. 

Cypripedium Klotzschianum, Reichb. f. in Linnaea, xxii. (1849), p. 811 ; Appun, Unter den Tropen, ii. 

p. 196. 
Selenipedium Klotzschianum, Reiclib. 1. in Bonplandia, ii. (1854), p. 110; Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 

Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 284. 
Cypripedium Schomburgkianum, Klotzsch, in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, ii. p. 229 ; R. Scliomb. 

Bot. Rem. Brit. Guiana, p. 59. 

Arabapu River, McConnell &f Quelch, 144. Aroie Creek, Kotinga River, im Thurn, 5. 
Ipelemouta, Arapu River, im Thurn, 31. Kako River, Jpptm. 1212. — Endemic. 




Bkocchinia redtjcta, Baker, in Journ. of Bot. xx. (1882), p. 331 ; Baker, Handh. 
Brom. p. 88 ; Mez, in DC. Monog. Phan. ix. p. 341. (Plate 12.) 
Boraima Range, 3500 ft., McConnell §• Quelch, 702. — -Also found ou the Kaieteur 
Savannah, Jenman, 873. 

Puya floccosa, E. Morren, in Belg. Hort, xxxv. (1878), p. 81 ; Mez, in DC. Monog. 
Phan. ix. p. 478. 

P. guianensis, Klotzscb, in R. Schorab. Reisen in Brit. -Guiana, iii. p. 1067. 

P. sp., Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 285. 

Boraima Bange, 3500 ft., McConnell §f Quelch, 701. — h\%o in Venezuela, Colombia, 
and Bolivia. 

Connellia, N. E. Brown, gen. nov. 

Plores hermaphroditi, regulares. Sepala libera, oblonga. Petala libera, lata, basi 
angustata, nuda, sepalis multo longiora. Stamina petalis breviora et iis basi breviter 
adnata, filamentis filiformibus, autheris oblongis basifixis. Ovarium superum, trigo- 
num, loculis multiovulatis ; stylus elongatus ; stigmata linearia. Capsula in carpellis 
3 septicide separata, carpellis introrsum dehiscentibus. Semina numerosa, parva, 
linearia, utrinque appendiculata. — Herboe habitu Tillandsiee. Eolia rosulata, integra 
vel basi denticulata. Inflorescentia terminalis, spiciformis, simplex vel composita. 
Elores sub quaque bractea solitarii vel plures, pedicellati. 

Connellia Augusts, N. E. Brown. (Plate 13.) Capsula 6-7 lin. longa, 3 lin. diam., 

trigona, oblonga, coriacea, glabra, in carpellis 3 septicide soluta, carpellis longe 

rostratis introrsum dehiscentibus. Semina lf-2 lin. longa, lineari-teretia, curvata, 

utrinque membranaceo-appendiculata. — Encholirium Augusta', B. H. Schomb. in Verb. 

des Ver. Beford. Gartenb. in Preuss. (1S46), p. 18, t. 2; in Bot. Zeitung (1846), 

p. 454 ; B. Schomb. Reisen in Brit. -Guiana, ii. p. 271, and iii. p. 1067 ; & in Bot. 

Bern. Brit. Guiana, p. 77 ; De Beer, Brom. p. 27. Caraguata Augusta', Benth. 

& Hook. f. Gen. PI. iii. p. 668. Dyckia Augusta, Baker, Handb. Brom. p. 135. 

Puya Augusta, Mez, in DC. Monogr. Phan. ix. p. 487, partim. 

Summit of Mount Boraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 670. South slopes of 

Boraima at 6500 ft., Schomburgk, 687, 1021. 

The discovery of fruiting specimens of this plant by Messrs. McConnell & Quelch 
demonstrates that it cannot properly be referred to either of the genera under which it 
has previously been placed. Erom Encholirion it differs totally in habit, large bracts, 
broad petals, and seeds. Erom Caraguata it differs in its free petals and in its seeds. 
Erom Dyckia it differs in habit, in the long-beaked entire (not bifid) carpels into which 
the ripe fruit sejmrates, and in its seeds. And from Puya it differs in habit, in the petals 
not twisting when the flower fades, in the capsule not dehiscing loculicidally, and in the 
seeds. The only genus which approaches it in structure is Lindmania, Mez, but the 
habit, branching panicle, small bracts and very small flowers of the species of Lindmania 


are so entirely different from those of Connellia, that they cannot naturally be placed in 
the same genus. Possibly the fruit of Lmdmania, which I have not seen, and the 
dorsifixed anthers may afford technical characters to distinguish the two genera, especi- 
ally if taken in conjunction with the difference in habit. 

Connellia Quelchii, N. E. lb-own. (Plate 14.) Folia rosulata U-of poll, longa, 

angusta, convoluta, integra, basi tantum minute dcnticulata, supra tomentosa, suhtns 

glabra, vel rare utrinque tomentosa, marginibus albo-tomentosis. Scapus simplex, 

multibracteatus. Bractete imbricatae, glabrae, nitidae; inferiores steriles amplexi- 

caules, abrupte subulato-cuspidatae ; fiorigei-c elliptico-ovatse, apiculatae, valde 

concava?. Elores sub quaque bractea solitarii, pedicellati, speciosi, rosei. — Tillandsia 

strictdy var. ?, Baker j in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1S87), p. 285. Puya 

August a, Mez, in DC. Monog. Phan. ix. p. 187, partim. 

Leaves rosulate, l|-5f in. long, 2-4i lin. broad, linear, convolute-subulate, rather 

blunt, rigidly coriaceous, minutely denticulate at the base only, densely white-tomentose 

on the inner face and along the margins, usually glabrous on the couvex back, rarely 

tomentose on both sides. Scape arising from the centre of the rosette, 2-5 in. lon^ to 

the lowest flower of the 2-3^ in. long raceme, 1-1£ lin. thick, glabrous, clothed with 

imbricating bracts, which are f-l| in. long, 6-8 lin. broad, stem-clasping, broadly 

elliptic-oblong and abruptly contracted into a subulate leafy point at the apex, or broadly 

ovate and simply acute or acuminate, glabrous, with tomentose margins to the leafy point, 

brown in the dried state, shining. Raceme moderately dense, lj-lf in. diam., 7-13- 

flowered, its bracts ascending or somewhat spreading, 7-10 lin. long, 5-7 lin. broad, 

elliptic-ovate, acute or obtuse and apiculate, deeply concave, glabrous, brown, shining. 

Flowers solitary under each bract, pedicellate. Pedicels 2-8 lin. long, glabrous. Sepals 

free, 5-5| lin. long, 2^-3 lin. broad, ovate-oblong, acute, glabrous, light brown, with 

thin rose-pink margins. Petals free, 9 lin. long, oh lin. broad, orbicular, obtuse, 

narrowed into a short broad claw at the base, glabrous, entire, without a scale at their 

base, bright rose-pink. Stamens about 5 lin. long, glabrous ; filaments very shortly 

adnate to the petals at their base, filiform ; anthers f lin. long, oblong, obtuse. Ovary 

superior, trigonous-ovoid, glabrous, narrowed into a glabrous style 3i lin. long, with 3 

recurving compressed linear stigmas about 1 lin. long, slightly undulated along the 

stigmatose surface. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., im Thum, 315 ; McConnell 8f Quelch, 107, 072. 
In general appearance this plant bears a slight resemblance to Tillandsia stricta, Soland.. 
but in all details is very different. It is considered by Mez to he identical with 
C. Augusta ; but although an undoubted congener of that plant, is most certainly very 
distinct from it specifically, being very much smaller in size, with the upper surface 
and margins of the leaves tomentose, solitary flowers under each bract, and a glabrous 
calyx; whilst C. Augustce has leaves 8-14 in. long, quite glabrous on both sides, the 
flowers are in clusters of 3-7 under each bract, and the calyx is thinly covered with short 
hairs. I have not seen ripe seeds of C. Quelchii, but the ovules show that they will be 
appendaged at each end It is a very pretty species and well worth cultivating. 



Tillandsia bhodocincta, Baker, in Journ. Bot. xxvi. (1888), p. 143, & Handb. Brom. 
p. 178 ; Mez, in DC. Monog. Phan. ix. p. 791. Tillandsia sp.. Baker, in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 285. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell fy Quelch, 671. — Endemic. 


Sisyrhinchium alatum, Hooker, Icones Plant, t. 219, var. 
Kotinga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 139. 


Nietneria corymbosa, Klotzsch, in Pv. Scbomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1066 ; im 
Thurn & Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), pp. 269, 285. 
Upper slopes of Mount Rorairna, McConnell 8f Quelch, 12, 36, 328. Summit of Mount 
Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 83, 656. — Apparently endemic to the region. 

Tofieldia Sciiomburgkiana, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 285, 
t. 49. f. A. 

Isidrogahis guianensis, Klotzsch, in R. Scbomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1065, name only. 

Upper slopes and summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell Sr Quelch, 93, 326, 657 ; 
Schomburgk. — Endemic. 


Xyris Seubertii, Nilss. in K. Svensk Akad. Handl. xxiv. (1892), No. xiv. p. 51, t. 4. 
f. 1. 
Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 41. — The locality in which 
Schomburgk collected this plant is unknown to me, and the leaves of his specimens are 
much smaller than those of the specimens collected by McConnell & Quelch. 

Xyris concinna, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Planta 3-6 poll, alta, perennis, glabra. Caudex 

J- 1 poll, longus. Folia disticha, l-2f poll, longa, anguste linearia, acuta. Pedun- 

culus subteres, uno margine prominente, basi vagina apice breviter foliata 

instructus. Spica ovoidea. Bractese oblongse vel ellipticae, obtusae, castaneae, late 

albo-marginatse, laceratae, glabrae. Sepala lateralia lineari-lanceolata, acuta, carinata, 

glabra, carina integra vel ad medium minutissime scabrida. Petala elliptica, obtusa, 

integra, lutea. Staminodia bibrachiata, brachiis penicillatis luteis. 

Perennial. Caudex \-\ in. (or more ?) long, \ lin. thick, naked below the leaves, 

emitting fibrous roots. Leaves distichous, l-2f in. long, ^-f lin. broad, linear, acute, 

abruptly dilated into a short, broad, bright brown, clasping base, not twisted, glabrous. 

Peduncles 1-6 to a stem, 2|-5^ in. long, J-J lin. thick, subterete, with a raised line 

along one side, glabrous ; their basal sheaths f-lf in. long, produced at the apex into a 

short compressed or leafy point, keeled, glabrous, often minutely ciliate along the keel or 

at its apex. Spikes 2i-3i lin. long, ovoid, obtuse. Bracts 1|-2| lin. long, 1-li lin. 


broad, oblong or elliptic, obtuse, chestnut-brown, with a broad white hyaline border, 
which soon becomes lacerated, glabrous. Lateral sepals 2f lin. long, h lin. broad, 
complicate, linear-lanceolate, acute, keeled, yellowish-brown, glabrous, the keel quite 
entire or very minutely scabrid along the middle. Petals 2 lin. long, 1 lin. broad, elliptic, 
obtuse, entire, yellow. Staminodes 2-armed, about h lin. long, divided into tufts of 
yellow hairs. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8(500 ft, McConnell 8f Quelch, 19(5. 

Allied to Xyris Seubertii, Nilss., but distinguished by its smaller size, lacerated bracts, 
and the glabrous or very minutely scabrid keel of the lateral sepals. The broad bright 
brown bases of the leaves give the base of the plant a somewhat bulbous appearance. 

Xyris witsenioides, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 285, t. 50. f. B. 
X. caulescens, Klotzsch, in It. Schornb. Reiseu in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1064, name only. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 95, 658. — Endemic. 

Abolboda Sceptrum, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 286, & 
pp. 258, 259, 262, 267, & 268. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 668. — -Endemic on Roraima and the 
surrounding region. 

The specimen collected by McConnell & Quelch consists of adult leaves and young 
plants, and that collected by im Thurn of the upper part of a flowering stem without 
leaves, so that this interesting plant is as yet very imperfectly represented in European 


Stegolepis guianensis, Klotzsch, ex Koern. in Linnyea, xxxvii. (1871-73), p. 481; im 
Thurn & Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), pp. 265, 267 & 286. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 669. — Endemic. 


Eriocaulon tenuifolium, Klotzsch, in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1116. 

Savannahs generally, McConnell 8f Quelch, 307. 

PjEpalanthus Roraimjc, Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 286. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 102, 315, 660.— Endemic. 

P^palanthtjs flavescens, Koern. in. Mart. Fl. Bras. iii. pt. i. p. 123 ; im Thurn & 
Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), pp. 263, 286. 

P. eriocephalus, Klotzsch in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 100 1, name only. 

Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 9, 10, 327.— Also in Venezuela 
and Brazil. 

PjEPALANTHUs fraternus, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Acaulis. Eolia dense rosulata, linearia, 
subacuta, basi late dilatata, supra canaliculata, rigida, supra pilis articulatis appressis 


tenuiter obtecta et pilis longis paucis laxe ciliata, subtus vel rave utrinque glabra, 

in axillis dense lanato-villosa. Pedunculi 8-12 poll, longi. laxe villosi, rare glabri. 

Capitula 4-|-5 lin. diam., albo-villosa. Bracteae involucrantes 3-4-seriata3, late 

ovatae, acutae, dorso appresse pubescentes, fuscae. Bracteae inter flores oblongse, 

subacuta?, apice dense albo-barbatee. Peceptacuhun pilosum. Sepala elliptica, 

obtusa, hyalino-olivacea, ciliata, apice dense albo-barbata. Petala noris masculini in 

tubutn inf undibuliformem stipitatum connata ; floris fceminei libera, sessilia, anguste 

linearia, dense ciliato-barbata. 

A stemless perennial. Leaves densely rosulate, 1-1| in. long, 1-li lin. broad, linear, 

tapering to a blunt point, rather abruptly dilated into a broad open sbeath at the base, 

rigid, concave and thinly covered with adpressed white jointed hairs on the face, convex 

and glabrous on the back, rarely glabrous on both sides, veins not prominent, scarcely 

striate, often, but not always, thinly ciliate with a few long hairs, densely villose-woolly with 

long fine hairs in the axils. Peduncles 1-3 to a plant, 8-12 in. long, slender, obscurely 6-7- 

angular, thinly covered with short spreading hairs or rarely glabrous ; their basal sheaths 

1-lf in. long, with a rigid oblique subacute ciliate mouth, otherwise glabrous. Heads 

4^-5 lin. diam., at first hemispherical, afterwards globose, monoecious or rarely unisexual. 

Involucral bracts in 3-4 series, the innermost lf-2 lin. long, 1^ lin. broad, broadly ovate, 

acute, fuscous, adpressed-pubescent on the back, ciliate, the outer gradually smaller. 

Flowering-bracts 1^ lin. long, ^ lin. broad, oblong, obtuse or subacute, pale fuscous, 

densely bearded with white hairs on the apical part, lleceptacle pilose with long white 

hairs, as are also the pedicels of the flowers. Male flowers pedicellate ; sepals 3, 1J lin. 

long, \ lin. broad, elliptic, obtuse or subacute, fuscous, densely bearded with white hairs 

on the apical part ; petals arising \ lin. above the sepals, all united into a hyaline 

funnel-shaped tube \ lin. long, truncate, witli 3 very minute teeth at the apex, glabrous ; 

stamens shortly exserted, with white anthers ; rudimentary pistil represented by 3 

clavate bodies, minutely papillate at the apex. Female flowers shortly pedicellate ; 

sepals \\ lin. long, §-f lin. broad, elliptic, subacute, beautifully reticulated with fuscous, 

ciliate from the base and densely bearded on the upper halt' with long white hairs ; 

j>etals 3, free, arising close to the sepals, 1 lin. long, about \ lin. broad, ciliate and 

clothed on both sides with long white hairs ; ovary ovoid, trigonous, glabrous, narrowed 

into a style about \ lin. long, with 3 linear bifid stigmas, and 3 stout appendages, 

papillate at the apex only. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., JfcC'oi/ueU S,- Quelc/i, 96, 659. 
Allied to P.falcatus, Koern., and P. jlaresceus, Koern. From the former it differs by 
its more rigid, channelled leaves, less woolly heads, and more acute involucral bracts, 
and from P. Jlavescens, Koern., by the narrower and more acute leaves, which have a 
different pubescence, and the very different flower-heads. It also appears to be near 
P. Schomburgkii, Klotzsch (which I have not seen), but that plant is described as 
having longer and broader leaves, striate, with prominent veins on the upper side, a 
subulate point to the peduncular sheath, much shorter peduncles, and glabrous involucral 
1 tracts. 


I'.Kiui.Aviin s STJ3CAULESCENS, X. E. Brown, sp. n. Plants 4-8 poll. alta. Caulis 
simplex, dense toliosus. Folia lineari-lanceolatu. acuta, glabra, juniora pilis lougis 
laxe ciliata. Pedunculi 2-7-aggregati, obtuse 4-angulati, glabri, vaginis oblique fissis 
apice siiliulato-apieiilatis glabris ore ciliatis. Capitula hemisphserica, albo-villosa. 
Bractese involucrantes suborbiculares vel Late oho vatse, obtusissimse, minutee ciliata-. 
fuscae. Bracteae inter flores oblongae, obtusse, apiculatae, apice albo-barbatae. 
Receptaculum glabrum, sed pedicellis laxe pilosis. Floris masculi sepala obovata, 
ohtusa, apice albo-barbata ; petala in tubum tridentatum longe stipitatum connata. 
Floris foeminei sepala elliptica vel obovata, obtusa, apice albo-barbata; petala 
libera, oblonga, obtusa, pilis longis dense ciliata, dorso glabra. 
A perennial, with a simple densely leafy stem J-2^ in. long. Leaves f-1^ in. long, 
1-2^ lin. broad, linear-lanceolate, acute, glabrous, striate, green, the younger laxly ciliate 
with long white hairs, ascending, becoming deflexed with age. Peduncles 2-7 to a plant, 
2^-5 k in. long, slender, obtusely 1-angled, glabrous ; their basal sheaths 1-1} in. long, 
glabrous, with an oblique ciliate mouth, acute or subulate-pointed. Heads 2-3 lin. diam.. 
hemispherical, monoecious, white-villous. Involucral bracts in 3-1 series ; the innermost 
f lin. long, f-1 lin. broad, suborbicular or broadly obovate, very obtuse, glabrous, minutely 
ciliate, fuscous, the outer gradually smaller. Flowering bracts f-1 lin. long, £ lin. broad, 
oblong, obtuse, apiculate, fuscous, densely bearded with short white hairs on the apical 
part. Receptacle apparently glabrous, but with the base of the pedicels pilose with Ion" 
hairs. Male flowers: sepals f lin. long, ^ lin. broad, obovate, obtuse, brown, bearded 
with white hairs at the apex ; petals connate into a hyaline, subtruncate, minutely 
3-toothed tube, separated from the sepals by a stipes nearly ^ lin. long, glabrous ; anthers 
white. Female flowers : sepals f-1 lin. long, nearly i lin. broad, elliptic or obovate, 
obtuse, fuscous or brownish, densely bearded with short white hairs on the apical part ; 
petals 3, free, arising close to the sepals, f lin. long, ^ lin. broad, oblong, obtuse, light 
fuscous, densely fringed with very long hairs on the margins and borders of the inner 
face, glabrous on the back; ovary glabrous, trigonous ; style elongated ; stigmas linear, 
bifid to halfway down ; appendages rather thick, papillate at the apex. 

Kotinga Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 153. Savannahs generally, McConnell fy Quelch, 

A very distinct species, bearing a resemblance to P. uncmatus, Gardn., in stem and 
foliage, but with very different flower-heads. It might be placed near P. plantagmeus, 

P.EPALANTHUS BIFO&MIS, X. E. Brown, sp. n. Planta pusilla, acaulis, ut videtur annua. 
Folia rosulata, 3-1 lin. longa, linearia, acuta, supra arachnoideo-tomentosa, demum 
glabra. Pedunculi 3-1, tiliformes, lf-2| poll, longi, laxe villosi vel subglabri, vaginis 
glabris ore obliquis acutis. Capitula hemisphaerica, 2-2| lin. diam., pallide luteo- 
alba. Bractese involucrantes oblongre vel ovato-oblongic, acuta?, glabrae. Bracteae 
inter flores nulhe. Receptaculum et pedicelli lanati. Flores masculi quam fceminei 
multo minores, oblique deltoidei, acuti, sepalis inasqualibus ad medium barbatis, 
petalis in tubum minutum stipitatum connatis. Flores foeminei recti; sepala 


eorum 3, libera, anguste lanceolata, acuminata, carinata, glabra, ad medium ciliata; 

petala 3, euneato-obovata, prope apicem obtusum incurvum leviter connata, dorso 

pilis longis dense vestita. 
A small stemless annual ? Leaves rosulate, very spreading, 3-4 lin. long, \-± lin. 
broad, linear, acute, thinly cobwebby-tomentose above, becoming glabrous, glabrous 
beneath, woolly in the axils. Peduncles 3-4 to a plant, lf-2| in. long, filiform, thinly 
villose or nearly glabrous. Heads simple, monoecious, 2-2h lin. diam., very pale straw- 
coloured in all parts. Involucral-bracts in 3-4 series, much shorter than the flowers, the 
innermost f lin. long, \-§ lin. broad, oblong or ovate-oblong, acute, quite glabrous, thin, 
semi-transparent. Flowering-bracts none. Receptacle and pedicels very woolly. Male 
flowers much smaller than the female flowers, with rather longer pedicels, very oblique; 
sepals 3, two of them \ lin. long, \ lin. broad, obliquely semiovate, straight along one 
margin, very much curved along the other, acute, the third smaller, rhomboid-lanceolate, 
acute, all bearded with short hairs at about the middle, transparent ; petals connate into 
a very minute, stipitate, funnel-shaped cup, glabrous ; anthers white. Female flowers 
straight, projecting much beyond the males ; sepals 3, free, 1 lin. long, \ lin. broad, narrowly 
lanceolate, acuminate, boat-shaped, keeled, glabrous, ciliate at the middle ooly, trans- 
parent ; petals arising a little above the sepals, scarcely \ lin. long, about \ lin. broad, 
cuneate-obovate, obtuse and indexed at the apex, and apparently slightly connate there, 
densely clothed with long hairs on the back ; ovary trigonous, glabrous, with a glabrous 
style, divided at the apex into 3 simple stigmas and 3 slender clavate appendages. Capsule 
scarcely J lin. diam. Seeds ellipsoidal, faintly ribbed, glabrous, brown. 
Kotiuga Valley, near Mount Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 126. 

This species much resembles Pcepalanthus simplex, Miq., but is readily distinguished 
by the very unequal size and dissimilar form of the male and female flowers, the 
females conspicuously projecting much beyond the males, so that the heads have a 
somewhat echinate appearance. 

PjEPalanthus umbellatus, Kunth, Enum. PI. iii. p. 537. 
Kotiuga Valley, McConnell Sf Quelch, 129. 

Pcepalanthus subtilts, Miq. Stirp Surin. Sel. p. 221. 
Savannahs generally, McConnell Sf Quelch, 312. 

Pcepalanthus capillaceus, Klotzsch, in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, i. p. 377, 
ii. p. 5, & iii. p. 1063; Koern. in Mart. Fl. Bras. iii. pt, I. p. 415, t. 53. f. 2. 
Kukenaam Puver, McConnell Sf Quelch, 314. Roraima, Appun, 1217. — Endemic to 
the region. 


Cyperus uncinatus, Poir. Encycl. vii. p. 247. 

Kotiuga Valley near Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 128. Savannahs generally, 
McConnell Sf Quelch, 321. 


FUIRENA UMBELLATA, Rottb. Descr. et Ic. PI. p. 70, t. 1!). f. 3. 

Ireng Valley, MeCormell fy Qtielch, 254. 

Hypolytrum pungens, Vahl, Enum. ii. |>. 283. 
Kotinga Valley, McDonnell Sf Quelch, 179. 

EVERARDIA ANGUSTA, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Folia lint-aria, acuta, laxe pilosa. Culmi 
basi vaginati, apbylli, valde compressi, leviter concavo-convcxi, parce pilosi vcl fere 
glabri. Panicula elongata, linearia, stricta, ramis gracilibus erectis 1- (rare 2-)spicu- 
latis in axillis vaginorum aggregatis. Spiculse masculse lanceolatae, glumis 5-7 
coraccis oblongis acutis mucronatis brunneis sterilibus et glumis 1-6 niembranaceis 
oblongis obtnsis fertilibus instructs; stamina sub quaquc gluma 6-12. Spicuke 
fcemineoe omnes ad apicem paniculi dispositse, glumis 5 oblongo-lanceolatis acutis 
mucronatis ovarium solitarium stipitatum circumdatis ; stigmata 3, dense villosa » 
pili hypogyni copiosi. 
Leaves in tufts of 3-6, distinct from the flowering culms, 8-12 in. lornr. 14-11 lin 
broad, linear, acute, often folded, but when expanded channelled down the face, with an 
acute ridge on each side of the channel, flat on the back, thinly pilose, usually slightly 
recurving. Flowering culms 14-18 in. high, including the panicle, J-f lin. broad, 
flattened, slightly concave on one side, convex on the other, sparingly pilose or nearly 
glabrous, produced on distinct leafless shoots, embraced by a long glabrous leafless sheath 
at the base. Panicle 7-12 in. long, strictly erect, linear, composed of 1—5 distant tufts 
of erect, simple or once umbellately divided, filiform branchlets, clustered in the axils of 
close-fitting brown sheaths $— | in. long, which have spreading leafy points ^-1 in. long. 
Spikelets solitary or very rarely 2 at the end of the branchlets, light brown. Male 
spikelets 3-4 fin. long, 1-1 j lin. thick, lanceolate, with 5-7 coriaceous, oblong, acute, 
mucrouate, brown empty glumes, thinly and minutely pubescent on the back, and 4-6 
membranous, oblong, obtuse, fertile glumes; stamens 6-12 under each glume; anthers 
2 lin. long, linear, tipped with a minute tuft of stiff hairs. Female spikelets all at 
the apex of the panicle, more slender than the males, 3 lin. long, about § lin. thick, with 
about 5 oblong-lanceolate, acute, mucronate, minutely ciliate glumes surrounding the 
solitary pubescent ovary ; stigmas 3, densely villose ; hypogynous hairs copious. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, S600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 676. 

This species is easily distinguished from the following by its very much narrower 
leaves and less floriferous panicles. 

Evehardia Montana, Ridl. in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Eot. ii. (1887), p. 2S7. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 674. — Endemic. 


Panictjm eligtjlatum, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Folia erecta, linearia, attenuato-acuta, 

rigida, cinereo-glauca. supra ad basin longe villosa et ad basi vaginorum villoso- 
tomentosa ; ligula nulla. Culmi 10-13 poll, longi, stricti, striata, glabri, ad nodos 



subglauci, bivaginati, vagina inferiore t'oliosa. Panicula 2-3 poll, longa, oblonga, 

multiflora. Spiculae ellipsoideap, 1-2-florae. Glumae 3 inferiores vacuae, glabrae, 

brunneae vel atro-fuscae ; gluma infima parva ; secunda et tertia subeequales elliptica?, 

obtusae, profunde concavae 6-7-nerves. Gluma florens elliptica, obtusa, profunde 

concava, laevis, 5-nervis, glabra, albida. Palea elliptica, obtusa, concava, 2-nervis, 

glabra, albida. 

Leaves, excluding the sheaths, 0-9 in. long, 2^-3 lin. broad, linear, tapering to a very 

acute subpimgent point, with involute margins, rigid, erect, greyish-glaucous, striate, 

more or less densely pilose on the upper side at the base, and densely villose-tomentose 

at the very base of the sheaths ; ligule none. Culms 10-13 in. long, straight, striate, 

glabrous, more or less glaucous at the nodes, bearing two sheaths, the lower of which 

bears a short leaf. Panicle 2-3 in. long, f— ] in. diam., oblong-lanceolate, moderately 

compact, with semiverticillate, erect, glabrous branchlets and pedicels. Spikelets lj-H 

lin. long, ellipsoidal, 1-2-flowered. Empty glumes 3, glabrous, brown or blackish; the 

lowest, f-1 lin. long, 3 lin. broad, oblong or elliptic-oblong, obtuse, 2-nerved ; the 2 inner 

lj lin. long, i lin. broad, elliptic, obtuse, deeply boat-shaped, 0-7-nerved. Flowering 

glume 1 lin. long, elliptic, obtuse, deeply concave, 5-nerved, glabrous, smooth, whitish. 

Pale similar to the flowering glume, but smaller and flatter, 2-nerved, whitish. Anthers 

f lin. long, very dark purplish brown. Stigmas 2, densely plumose, brown or fuscous. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 675. 

Allied to Panicum loreum, Trim, but the leaves and panicle are shorter than they are 
in that species, the spikelets rather larger, and the Leaves quite destitute of a ligule, the 
absence of which is its most remarkable character, since there are few grasses in which 
all trace of a ligule is absolutely wanting. 

Panicum chnoodes, Trim Gram. Panic, p. 211. 

Roraima Range, 3500 ft., McCovmell §/• Quelch, 709. — Also in Brazil. 

Echinol^na hirta, Desv. Journ. Bot. i. (1813), p. 75. 

E. scabra, H. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. i. p. 1LS, t. .'3S ; Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. 
(1887), p. 288. 

Upper slopes of Mount Roraima, McConnell fy Quelch, 71. — Throughout Guiana and 
Brazil. The only other species of this genus is a native of Madagascar. 

Olyra micrantha, H. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. i. p. 199. 

Roraima Range, 3500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 7" s . Widely dispersed in Brazil and 

Arundo roraimensis, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Plania i-3 ped. alta, culmo ad apicem laxe 
folioso glabro. Folia linearia, complicata, apice oblique subacuta, subrigida, glabra 
vel minutissime scaberula, rare supra ligulam laxe pilosa, intra microscopice papu- 
losa ; ligula ad annulum dense pilosum reducta. Panicula 1-6 poll, longa, ramis 
pedicellisque scaberulis vel villosis. Spiculae 3-5-florae, rhachilla brevitcr pilosa inter 
flores articulata. Glumae 2 inferiores vacuae, subaequales, lineares, acutae vel minute 


fcrifidse, 1 -nerves, submembranaceae, glabra* ; gimme florentes oblongac, lon^e 
aristatse, basi longe pilosse, 5-nerves. Palea lineari-oblonga, bifida vol emarginata, 
2-iicrvis, membranacea, rnarginibus inflexis. 
Perennial, 1-J— 3 ft. (or more?) high. Stems Laxly leafy to tbe top, glabrous. Lower 
leaves 9-20 in. long, the upper gradually shorter, 1^-3 lin. broad, erect, slightly rigid, 
lineal', complicate, very obliquely subacute, glabrous or occasionally very minutely and 
thinly scaberulous on the back, microscopically papillate on the upperside, sometimes 
pilose and ciliate with long hairs just above the ligule, which is reduced to a dense ring 
of hairs. Panicle slightly nodding, 4i-6 in. long, l^-2i in. broad, not very dense, its 
branches and pedicels scaberulous or villose. Spikelets 8-9 lin. long, 3-5-flowered, the 
rhachilla readily disarticulating between the flowers, which are hermaphrodite. Empty 
glumes 2, subequal, 3-3| lin. long, linear, acute and mucronate or shortly bifid at the 
apex, 1-nerved, membranous, glabrous. Flowering glume (excluding the awn) 3 lin. long, 
oblong-lanceolate, very concave, villose on the basal part with white hairs 2 lin. long, 
5-nerved, trifid at the apex, with the middle tooth (or nerve) running out into a straight 
scabrid awn about 4 lin. long. Pale 2^- lin. long, oblong-linear, with intiexed margins, 
bifid or emarginate at the apex, 2-nerved, scabrous on tbe nerves, otherwise glabrous. 
Lodicules J lin. long, broad and oblique, subentire or crenately 2-lobulate, glabrous. 
Stamens 3. Ovary about 1 lin. long, slightly fusiform, or subterete, glabrous. Styles 2, 
plumose for f of their length, yellow or brown. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8(500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 073. 
Allied to A. pilosa, D'Urv. 

Arlndinaria deflexa., N. E. Brown, sp. n. Culmi superne ramosi, ramis erectis 

teretibus glabris Miosis. Folia deflexa, lanceolata, acuminata, glabra, marginibus 

scaberulis ; ligula brevis, subtruncata ; vagina ad apicem longe setosa. Panicula 

terminalis, erecta, angusta, laxa, glabra. Spiculse angustse, paucifiorae. Glumae 

inferiores 3 vacua?, glunia extima minimus, 2 sequentes fiorentibus subsimiles sed 

minores ; glumse florentes ovato-lanceolatae, obtusae, concavae, 7-nerves, glabrae, 

minutissime ciliatae. Palea angusta, brevissime bifida, bicarinata, carinis ciliatis. 

Stems branching in the upper part. Branches very erect, close to and parallel with 

the main stem, terete, glabrous, leafy, nearly concealed by the leaf-sheaths. Leaves 

deflexed, 5-5.V in. long, 9-11 lin. broad, lanceolate, tapering to a very acute point, 

glabrous on both sides, scabrid on the margins, probably slightly glaucous beneath; 

primary veins not very distinct from the rest; sheaths closely embracing the stem, 

glabrous, striate, with a fringe of long bristles at the apex ; ligule short, subtruncate, 

glabrous. Panicle 5-11 in. long, 1-2 in. broad, lax, with slender erect glabrous branches. 

Spikelets about 3-flovvered, 5-6 lin. long, narrow, with the 3 lower glumes empty, the 

lowest of which is about 1 lin. long, the second and third 2-2^ lin. long, oblong, obtuse. 

concave, glabrous, not ciliate, obscurely 5-7-nerved. Flowering glume 3|-3| lin. long, 

ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, concave, glabrous, very minutely ciliate, 7-nerved. Pale :$ lin. 

long, linear-oblong, with inflexed sides, slightly bifid at the obtuse apex, with 2 keel-like 

ciliate nerves. Anthers 1^ lin. long, linear. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 678. 

h 2 


The spikelets on the specimens seen are imperfect, most of them consisting of empty 
bracts only, and none that I have examined contain a perfect ovary. 

Chusqtjea linearis, N. E. Brown, sp. n. Culmi graeiles, internodiis f— 2j poll, longis, 

ramulis brevibus ad nodos aggregatis. Folia (5-10 lin. longa, 1-1-g lin. lata, lanceo- 

lata, acutissima, glalmx, secus unum marginem minute scaberula; vaginas striataa, 

pubescentes, Mgula brevi subtruncati. Racemi ad nodos aggregati, lineares, spiculis 

3-0, unifloris. Glumae inferiores 4 vacua', glunia infima minima, sequentes majores 

pubescentes ; glunia florens convoluta, obtusa, apicem tantum puhescens, 7-8- 

nervis. Palea oblongo-ovata, obtusa, convoluta, glabra, apice ciliata, 4-nervis 

Stems slender, terete, glabrous, with internodes §-2| in. long, concealed by the striated 

sheaths, hearing at the nodes clusters of 4-10 simple leafy or flowering branches 1^-3 in. 

long. Leaves distichous, those on the branches 1^-2 lin. distant, 6-10 lin. long, 

1-1^ lin. broad, lanceolate, tapering to a very acute mucronate point, abruptly narrowed 

into a very short petiole at the base, glabrous, minutely ciliate-scabrid along one 

margin, striate beneath from the numerous closely placed prominent nerves; sheaths 

striate, pubescent ; ligule short, subtruncate, no bristles. Racemes linear, with 3-6 

pedicellate, adpressed, 1-flowered spikelets, or the terminal one with 14-15 spikelets. 

Outer 4 glumes empty; the lowest J-f lin. long, broadly oblong, obtuse, 1 -nerved ; the 

second lj-lf lin. long, oblong, obtuse, with or without a short awn, 1-nerved ; the two others 

subequal, 2^-2| lin. long, oblong-lanceolate, acute, very concave, 5-6-nerved, all more or 

less pubescent on the back and ciliate, at least at the apex. Flowering glume 2f lin. 

long, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, convolute, pubescent and ciliate at the apex only, with 

7-8 slender nerves. Pale 2 lin. long, oblong-ovate, convolute, obtuse and ciliate at the 

apex, membranous, with I slender nerves. Lodieules 3. narrowly oblong, obtuse, ciliate 

at the apex, §-f lin. long. Stamens 3 ;" anthers 1 lin. long, linear. Ovary narrowly 

ovoid, glabrous ; styles 2, narrowly plumose nearly to the base. 

Summit of Mount Eoraima, 8600 ft., McCormell §f Quelch, 677. 

Allied to C. dbietifolia, Griseb., but among other characters is easily distinguished by 
its linear racemes. 


By C. 11. Wright, A.L.S. 

1. Gleichenia ptjbescens, 11. B. it K. Nov (Jen. & S|>. i. p. 29. Mertensia pubescens, 

Willd. ; R,. Schomb. Eteisen in Brit.-Gu.iana, ii. p. 272 : Appun, Unter den Tropen, 

ii. p. 594. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell ,V Quelch, (Ho, 619. 
British Guiana : Kwating Creek ; also Mexico and West Indies to Chili. 

2. Cyathea vkstita, Mart, in Denkschr. Regensb. ii. (1822), p. 146. C. hirtula, Mart.; 

R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit. -Guiana, ii. p. 272; Appun, Unter den Tropen, ii. 

p. 594. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 605. 
Hurnirida Mountains, Brazil. 

3. Hemitelia subincisa, Kimze. in Bot. Zeit. ii. (1814), p. 296. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McComieU 8f Quelch, 620. 

British Guiana: Kwating Creek : also Central and Tropical South America. 

ALSOPHILA margixalis, Klot/.seh. in Linnaea, xviii. (1844), p. 512; Appun, Unter den 

Tropen, ii. 594. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell b Qvelch, 604. 

5. ALsorjni.A VILLOSA, Presl. ex Hook. Sp. Fil. i. ]>. 13; Appun. Unter den Tropen, ii. 

j). 594; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soe. Ser. IT. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 289. Cyathea villosa, 

H. B. & K. Nov. Cen. & Sp. i. p. 24, and vii. t. 070. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., JfrCoi/i/ell 8f Quelch, 621. 
British Guiana : Arapu River; also throughout Tropical South America. 

6. Alsopuila microphylla, Klotzsch, in Linmea, xviii. (1844), p. 541. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell A' Quelch, 600. 

Venezuela and New Granada. 

7. Dicksonia coniifolia, Hook. Sp. Fil. i. p. 70, t. 2 k lig. A. 
Summit of Roraima, SG00 ft., McConnell A - Quelch, 564. 
Jamaica, Venezuela, New Granada, and South Brazil. 

8. Uymenophyllum crispvji, H. B. & K. Nov. Gen. & Sp i. p. 26. 
Summit of Roraima, S000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 563. 

Cuba, Jamaica, Mexico, Venezuela. New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 


9. Hymexophylltjm DEJECTTTM, Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), 

p. 289 ; Hook. Ic. PL t. 1610. 

Roraima : upper slopes, McOonnell 8f Quelch, 46 ; summit, McConnell 8f Quelch, 
110, 113. 

Endemic. Mr. im Tliurn gathered it on the summit, as stated on j). 269 of Trans. 
Linn. Soc Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887). 

10. Hy'MENOphyllum polyanthos, Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 149 ; 11. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.- 

Guiana, iii. p. 1044. IT. clavatwm, Sw. ; R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit .-Guiana, ii. 
p. 272, iii. p. 1044 ; Appun, Unter den Tropen, ii. p. 594. H. Poeppigianum, Presl; 
R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit. -Guiana, iii. p. 1014; Appun, Unter den Tropen, ii. 
p. 59 1, 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McCormell 8f Quelch, (ill ; upper slopes, McConnell 8f 
Quelch, 50 p.p., 73; summit, 8000 ft,, McConnell §r Quelch, 624. 

British Guiana: Kwating Creek, Potaro River and Mazaruni River ; also West Indies, 
Central America, the entire South American continent, Tropical and Suhtropical Asia, 
New Zealand, Mascarene Islands, and Tropical Africa. 

11. Hymenophylltjm microcarpum, Desv. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, vi. (1827), p. 333. 
Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell 8f Quelch, i4, 69. 

Portorico, Guatemala, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and South Brazil. 

12. Hyjiexophyllum sericeum, Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 146. 
Summit of Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 628. 

West Indies, Guatemala. French Guiana, New Granada, Ecuador. Peru, Bolivia, 
and South Brazil. 

13. Hymenopiiviii m lineare, Sw. El. hid. Occ. iii. p. 1749. 

Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell 8f Quelch, 55 pro parte; summit, 8600 ft., 
McConnell 8f Quelch, 562. 

Tropical America from the West Indies and Mexico southward to Peru and Brazil, 
Tropical and South Africa, and Mascarene Islands. 

14. Hy>ii:>ophyllttm sp., JS. multijido, Sw.. amnis. 

Mazaruni, between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell §r Quelch, 596, 598. 

15. Trichomanes elegans, Rudge, PI. Guian. Rar. Ic. p. 24. Ripnenostackys elegans, 

Presl ; R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, ii. p. 272 ; Appun, Unter den Tropen, 

ii. p. 594. 

Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell §r Quelch, 615; Mazaruni River, under 3000 ft., 
McConnell 8f Quelch, 594. 

Central America, Trinidad, New Granada, Venezuela, and Northern Brazil. 

In no. 594 the upper part of one of the fertile fronds is barren, and about six pairs of 
pinna' have grown out in a similar manner to those of the barren fronds. 


16. Trichomanes macilkxtum, Van den Bosch, Eymenophyll. Nov. p. 12; Baker in 

Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 289. 

Mazaruni River, 250ft., McCotmell ^ Quelch, 578; between 250 and 3000 It., McCotmell 
8f Quelch, 597. 

British Guiana: upper slopes of Roraima; forests near the Kaieteur Savannah, 
Potaro River; Ainutu, below the Kaieteur Fall, Potaro River; Macouria River; also in 
Trinidad and Brazil, especially the northern provinces. 

This is regarded by Mr. Baker (Trans. Linn. Soc. loc. tit.) as a variety of T. BcmcroftU, 
Hook. & Grey. 

17. Trichomanes Bancrofth, Hook, et Grev. I.e. Fil. t. 201; It, Selionib. Reisen in 

Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 101-3; Appun, Unter den Tropen, ii. p. 504. 
Mazaruni River, between 250 and 3000 ft., McCotmell 8f Quelch, 587. 
British Guiana : Amutu and below the Kaieteur Fall on the Potaro River ; also in 
the "West Indies, Guatemala, French Guiana, Northern Brazil, and Peru. 

18. Teichomanes brachypus, Kunze, in Linmea, ix. (1834), p. 105 ; R. Schonib. Reisen 
in Brit.-Guiana, ii. p. 272. iii. p. 1043 ; Appun, Unter den Tropeii, ii. p. 594. 
T. Ankersii, Parker; R. Schonib. loc. tit. ; Appun, loc. tit. 

Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 009. 

British Guiana: in the forest just below the Kaieteur Fall, Potaro River ; Amutu, 
Potaro River; Tumbana-Capra ; also in St. Vincent, Trinidad, Guatemala, French 
Guiana, Venezuela, New Granada, and Brazil. 

19. Trichomanes pyxidieerum, Linn., var. emarginatum, Hook, et Baker, Syn. 
Fil. p. 81. 

Mazaruni, between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 599. 

British Guiana: upper slopes of Roraima; also iu the Andes of Quito. The type 
occurs throughout the tropics of both hemispheres. 

20. Trichomanes radicans, Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. iii. p. 1736. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McCotmell 8f Quelch, 612. 

Extending from the Southern United States, through Central America and the West 
Indies, to Southern Brazil and Bolivia; also in Western Europe, Atlantic Islands, 
West Africa, Mascarene Islands, Northern India, China, Japan, and Polynesia. 

21. Trichomanes roraimense, Jemn. in Gard. Chron. Ser. III. xx. (1896), p. 716. 
Summit of Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell A' Quelch, 108, 561. 

22. Trichomanes crispum, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2. p. 1560; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 

Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 289. 
Roraima : upper slopes, McConnell ty Quelch, 63 ; Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell 
8f Quelch, 616. 


British Guiana : Essequibo River ; Berbice (coast) ; Corentyne River ; forests near 
Kaieteur Savannah ; Kaieteur Ravine ; also West Indies, Central America, French 
Guiana. Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador. Bern. Bolivia, Paraguay, throughout Brazil, 
and West Tropical Africa. 

23. Trichoma nes pinnattjm, Sw. Syn. Pil. p. 142. Neurophyllum pinnatum, Presl; 

B. Schomb. Reisen in Brit. -Guiana, iii. p. 1044. 

Mazaruni, between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell A Quelch, 585; Boraiina range, 
3500 ft., McCormell 8f Quelch, 014. 

British Guiana : Potaro River, below the Kaieteur Fall ; Kanaku Mountains ; Karawanu 
Mountains; Corentyne Biver ; Berbice; also in the West Indies, Guatemala, French 
Guiana, Venezuela, New Granada, Peru, Northern Brazil, and Chili. 

24. Tkichomanes Prieurii, Kunze, Analect. Pterid. p. IS ; B. Schomb. Reisen in 

Brit. -Guiana, ii. p. 272, iii. p. 1013. T. rigidum, Appun, Unter den Tropen. ii. 
p. 501. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell A Quelch, 613. 

British Guiana: Kaieteur Ravine; Potaro River, below the Kaieteur Fall; also in 
the West Indies, French Guiana, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, and Brazil from 
the Amazon region southward to Santa Catherina. 

25. Tkichomanes gemmattjm, J. Sm. in nook. Journ. Bot. iii. (1811), p. 117. T. cellu- 

losum, Klotzsch in Linnsea, xviii. (1844), p. 531 ; B. Schomb. Beisen in Brit.- 
Guiana, ii. p. 272, iii. p. 10 l-'l. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell A Quelch, 608. 

British Guiana: Kanaku Mountains ; Amutu, Potaro Biver; Pacatout, below the 
Kaieteur Fall, Potaro River; also in Venezuela, Northern Brazil, Polynesia, the Philip- 
pines, Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. 

26. Linusaya DUBIA, Spreng. Syst. Veg. iv. p. 70 ; B. Scliomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, 

iii. p. 1018. 
Mazaruni. between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell A Quelch, 593. 

British Guiana: Roraima; Pacatout, below the Kaieteur Fall, Potaro River ; Amutu, 
Potaro River; also in French Guiana. 

27. Lindsaya trapeziformis, Dryand. in Trans. Linn. Soc. iii. (1797), p. 12, var. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 617. 

Intermediate between var. laxa, Baker, and var. arcuata, Baker (in Mart. Fl. Bras. i. 
II. p. 355). The type is widely diffused in Tropical America, Asia, and Australia. 

25. Lindsaya stricta, Dryand. in Trans. Linn. Soc. iii. (1797), p. 42 ; im Thurn and 
Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), pp. 269, 290. 
Roraima : upper slopes, McConnell A Qui Ich, 55, 62, 76 ; summit. SUOO ft., McConnell 
A Quelch. 197, 557. 


British Guiana: Kaieteur Savannah; Head of Iteribisci Lake; also in the West 
Indies, Central America. French Guiana, Venezuela, .New Granada, Peru, Bolivia, and 
throughout Brazil. 

29. Pteris aquilina, Linn., var. caudata, Hook. Sp. Fil. ii. p. 196; im Thurn, in 

Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 200. 
Summit of Boraima, 8600 It., McDonnell 8f Queleh, 553. 

Humirida Mountains; Florida, West Indies, Central America, Venezuela, Brazil, 
China, Malay Peninsula, and East Africa. The type is cosmopolitan. 

30. Pteris palmata. Wit Id. Sp. PI. v. p. 357. 

Kanuku Mountains, 1000 ft., McConnell 8f Queleh, 273. 

British Guiana: Rupununi and Watu Ticaba; also in the West Indies. Central 
America, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, and New Guinea. 

31. Pteris incisa, Thuuh. El. Cap. ed. Schult. p. 733; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 

Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 290. 

Roraima : upper slopes, McConnell 8f Queleh, 75. 

Also at the bottom of the cliff, Roraima. West Indies, Central America, Venezuela. 
New Granada, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, South Brazil, Juan Fernandez, Chiloe, 
Polynesia, Himalaya, Formosa, Ceylon, Tasmania, Mascarene Islands, South Africa, 
and "West Tropical Africa. 

32. Lomaria procera, Spreng. Syst, Veg. iv. p. 05 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. 
Bot. ii. (1887), p. 290. 

Summit of Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell fy Queleh, 121, 500. 

Throughout Tropical America from the West Indies and Mexico to Chili ; also in 
Polynesia, Malaya, New Zealand, Tasmania, Southern Australia, Mascarene Islands, and 
South Africa. 

33. Lomaria Boryana, Willd. Sp. PI. v. p. 292 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. 
ii. (1887), p. 290. Lomwia Schomburgkii, Klotzsch, in R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.- 
Guiana, ii. p. 272, iii. p. 1050, and in Linnsea, xx. (1SL0), p. 310; Appun, Unter 
den Tropen, ii. p. 594. 

Summit of Roraima, 8000 ft.. McConnell §r Queleh, 121. 

West Indies, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador. Bolivia, South Brazil, Chili, 
Patagonia, Tristan d'Acunha. Tropical and South Africa, and the Mascarene Islands. 

31. Asplenium serratuai, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1, p. 1078. 

Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell 8f Queleh, 001. 

British Guiana : Berbice ; Kuyuni Creek ; Oreala ; also in Florida, West Indies, 
Central America, French Guiana, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Galapago- 
Islands. Peru, Bolivia. Paraguay, Brazil, and the Society Islands. 



35. Aspeenium ltjnulatum, Sw., var. ekectum, Baker, iii Mart. Fl. Bras. i. II. p. 135 

Oliver, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 290. A. harpeodes, Kimze, in 
Linntea, xviii. (1844), p. 329 ; R. Schoinb. lleisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1051 ; 
Appun, TJnter den Tropen, ii. p. 595. 
Upper slopes of Boraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 45. 

West Indies, Central America, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, 
Argentine, Paraguay, Brazil, New Caledonia, India, Mascarene Islands, Tropical Africa, 
South Africa, and the Atlantic Islands. 

36. Asplenitjm serra, Langsd. et Fiseh. PL Voy. Russes, i. p. 16, t. 19 ; 11. Schomh. 

Beisen in Brit.-Guiana, ii. p. 272, iii. p. 1051 ; Appun, Unter den Tropen, ii. 
p. 595. 
Summit of Boraima, 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 623. 

British Guiana: Kwating Creek ; also in Brazil, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, 
Peru. New Caledonia, Tropical and South Africa, and the Mascarene Islands. 

37. Asplenii t m attrittjm, Sw. PI. Ind. Occ. iii. p. 1616; li. Schomh. Beisen in Brit.- 

Guiana, ii. p. 272, iii. p. 1051. 
Boraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 607. 

West Indies, Central America, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Galapagos Islands, 
Peru. Bolivia, Brazil, South India, Madagascar, and East Tropical Africa. 

38. ASPIDITJM IMENISCIOIDES, Willd. Sp. PI. v. p. 218. 
Boraima range, 3500 ft,, McConnell Sf Quelch, 618. 

British Guiana : Mazaruni Bush ; Potaro River ; Kabalebo River; Berhice ; Essequiho 
River; also in Trinidad, French Guiana, Brazil, and Pern. 

39. Nepurodium contermintjm, Desv. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, ii. (1827), p. 255; 

Baker, in Trans. linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 290. 
Summit of Boraima, 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 627. 

British Guiana: upper slopes of Boraima ; also in Florida, West Indies, Central 
America, and South America southward to Chili and the Argentine. 
This form has the ultimate segments more obtuse than the type. 

10. Nephrodium denticulatum, Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. p. 1 17 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 290. 

Summit of Boraima, 8(500 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 622. 

Boraima : on the upper slopes and near the base of the cliff ; also in the West Indies, 
Central America, Venezuela, New Granada, and Brazil. 

41. Polypodium (§ Gkammitis) Connellii, Baker, n. sp. ; ad P. grammeum, Sw, accedit ; 
differt frondibus glabris longiorihus margine revolutis, soris baud contiguis regulariter 
A densely ca>spitose herb. Rhizome scarcely creeping; palese lanceolate, hrown, 


membranous. Frond linear, simple, entire, 3-4 in. Long, 1-1', lin. wide, rigidly 
coriaceous, glabrous, gradually contracted into a very short, but distinct, stipe; veins 
immersed, concealed. Sori oblong, superficial, parallel with the midrib, often confluent. 
Summit of Boraima, *C><><> ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 111, 118, 570. 

42. Polypodium marginblltjm, Sw. El. lnd. Occ. iii. p. 1031 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 291. Mecosorus marginellus, var. major, Klotzscb ; 
R. Schomb. Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1054. 

Roraima: upper slope. McConnell 8f Quelch, 51; summit, SOOO ft., McCounr/l 8f 
Quelch, 117, 119, 508. 

West Indies, Venezuela, Peru, Brazil, Samoa, and St. Helena. 

Swartz (Fl. Ind. Occ. iii. p. 1031) says this species has '• venis bifidis"; subsecpient 
authors describe the veins as simple, which is the case in all the specimens at Kevv. 

43. Polypodium leptopodox, C. H. Wright, n. sp. ; ad P. marginellwm, Sw. accedit ; 

differt fronde membranacea, marginibus ciliatis, venis unifurcatis, stipite elongato 
tenui piloso. 
Rhizome shortly creeping, 2 lin. in diam., with brown lanceolate scales near the apex. 
Frond oblanceolate, obtuse, up to 2 in. long by 3 lin. broad, glabrous except for a few cilia 
on the margin when young, edged with a black line ; veins once forked, conspicuous ; 
sori few, near the apex of the frond, often confluent ; stipe up to 2^ in. long, slender, 

Summit of Roraima, 8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 509. 

44. Polypodium furcatum, Mett. in Abhandl. Senck. naturf. (ies. ii. (1858), p. 34; 
Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 291. 

Mazaruni, 250 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 570; between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell Sf 
Quelch, 584. 

British Guiana : upper slope of Roraima ; below and above the Kaieteur, Potaro 
River ; also in French Guiana, North Brazil, and the Island of Grenada. 

45. Polypodium serrulatum, Mett. Fil. Hort, Bot. Lips. p. 30 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. 

Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1N87), p. 291. Xiphoi>leris serrulata, Kaulf. ; R. Schomb. 
Reisen in Brit.-Guiana, ii. p. 272, iii. p. 1050. 
Mazaruni, between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell fy Quelch, 592. 

British Guiana : upper slopes of Roraima ; also in the West Indies, Central America, 
Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. Sandwich Islands, Mascarene 
Islands, and West Tropical Africa. 

Var. strictissimum, Hook. Sp. Fil. iv. p. 175. 

Summit of Roraima, 8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 555. 



16. Polypodium tovarense, Klotzscb, in Linnsea, xx. (1846), p. 374; Baker, in Trans. 

Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 291. 
Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell Sf Quelch, 67. 
Venezuela, New Granada, and Ecuador. 

17. Polypodium moniliforme, Lag. in Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 33 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 291. 

Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell S' Quelch, 47, d^; summit, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f 
Quelch, 558 

West Indies, Central America, Andes of New Granada, Ecuador, and Bolivia. 

18. Polypodium Hartii, Jenm. in Journ. Bot. xxiv. (1886), p. 272. 
Mazaruni, between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 591. 
Jamaica, Dominica, and Island of Grenada. 

19. Polypodium trichomanoides, Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. p. 131; 11. Sckomb. Reisen 

in Brit. -Guiana, iii. p. 1052 ; Appun, Unter den Tropen. ii. p. 595; Baker, in 

Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 291. 

lloraima: upper slopes, McConnell 8f Quelch, 49; Mazaruni, McConnell Sf Quelch, 575. 

British Guiana : Kaieteur Ravine and Savannah ; also in the West Indies, Central 

America, Erench Guiana, Brazil (Prov. Bahia), Ecuador, Peru, Juan Eernandez, 

Ascension Island, Northern India, and East Tropical Africa. 

50. Polypodium cultratum, Willd. Sp. PL v. p. 187 ; R. Schomb. Beisen in Brit.-Guiaua, 
ii. p. 272, iii. p. 1052 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 292. 

Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell Sf Quelch, 54, 56, 71. 

British Guiana : Kaicteur Savannah ; also in the West Indies, Central America, 
Venezuela, New Granada, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, West Tropical Africa, and the Mascarene 

51. Polypodium xanthotrichium, Klotzscb, in Linnaea, xx. (1846), p. 376; Baker, in 

Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 292. 
Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell Sf Quelch, (51, 68. 

52. Polypodium capillare, Desv. in Berl. Ges. naturf. Ereunde, Mag. v. (1811), p. 316; 

Baker in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 292. 
Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell Sf Quelch, 53, 58. 

British Guiana: in woods near the Kaieteur Savannah; also in the West Indies, 
Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. 

53. Polypodium Kalbreyeri, Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 291. 
Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell Sf Quelch, 65, 72. 
New Granada. 


54 POLYPODITJM BIGESCBNS, Bory, in Willd. Sp. PI. v. p. 183; Baker, in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Ser. II. Hot. ii. (1887), p. 292. 

Boraima: upper slopes, McConnell Sf Quelch, is, 70; summit, S(i00 ft., McCotmell Sf 
Quelch, 559. 

British Guiana : Kwating Creek ; also in the West Indies, Venezuela, New Granada, 
Ecuador. Peru, Brazil, Solomon Islands, Mascarene Islands, and Tropical Africa. 

55. Poi/TPODIUM BLASTICDM, Bory, in Willd. Sp. PI. v. p. 183. 

Makarapan Mt. on the north of Kwaimatta, 2000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 278. 
British Guiana : Kwating Greek ; Berbice; also in Florida, the West Indies, Central 
America, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru. Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. 

56. Polypodittm meridensk, Klotzsch. in Linnaea, xx. (1846), p. 380. 
Summit of Boraima, 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 198, 499, 560. 
Venezuela, New Granada, South Brazil. 

7. Polypodium incanum, Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 35. 

Kanaku Mts., 500 ft., McConnell A- (JnelcL 271. 

British Guiana: Savannah Bush; Rupununi; Corentyne River; also in the 
Southern United States, West Indies, Central America, French. Guiana, Venezuela, New 
Granada, Peim, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chili, South Africa, and the Zambesi. 

58. Polypodj [TM crassifolium, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1, p. 1083; R. Schomb. Beisen in 
Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1053 ; Appivn, Unter den Tropen, ii. p. 595. 

Boraima range, 3500 i't., McConnell Sf Quelch, 603. 

West Indies, Central America, French Guiana, Surinam, Venezuela, New Granada, 
Ecuador, Galapagos Islands, Peru. Bolivia, Brazil. 

59. Gymnogramme cyclophyela, Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), 
p. 293, t. 53. 

Summit of Boraima, 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 116, 120, 567. 

60. Gymnogramme elaphoglossoides, Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. 

(1887), p. 293, t. 51, 
Summit of Boraima, 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 112, 554. 

61. Gymnogramme pumila, A. Spreng. Tent. Suppl. ad Syst. Veg. p. 31 ; B. Schomb. 

Beisen in Brit.-Guiana, iii. p. 1054. 
Mazaruni, 250 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 491. 

British Guiana: Rupununi River; also in the West Indies, Central America, New- 
Granada, and Brazil. 


62. Gymnogramme flexuosa, Desv. in Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris, ii. (1827), p. 215'; 

Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot, ii. (1887), p. 293. 
Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell 8f Quelch, 59; summit, H600 ft.. McCouuell Sf 
Quelch, 629. 

Central America, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. 

63. Acrostichum simplex, S\v., var. maktinicense, Hook, et Baker, Syn. Fil. ed. 1, 

p. 400. 
Mazaruni, between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 581. 

British Guiana: Essequibo River and on the coast; also in the West Indies, New 
Granada, Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. 

64. Acrostichum conforme, Sw. Syn. Eil. pp. 10, 192, t. 1. tig. 1. 
Mazaruni, 250 ft., McConvell 8f Quelch, 577. 

British Guiana : Essequibo Biver and on the coast ; also in the West Indies, Central 
America, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, Chili, Brazil, Polynesia, Queensland, 
India, Mascarene Islands, Tropical and South Africa. 

The form of this polymorphic species represented in this collection has been named 
Acrostichum, alatum, Eee (Mem. Earn. Eouger. ii. p. 35. t. 5. fig. 2). 

05. Acrostichum latifolilm, Sw. Fl. Ind. Occ. iii. p. 1589 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 294. 

Summit of Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 571. 

British Guiana: upper slopes of Roraima; Asabaru Creek; Sheenabowa and 
Kaieteur Ravine, Potaro River ; Demerara River and on the coast ; also throughout 
the AVest Indies and Tropical America, and widely diffused in Polynesia, Java, Mascarene 
Islands, Tropical and South Africa. 

66. Acrostichum squamosum, Sw. in Schrad. Journ. Bot. iv. (1800), p. 11 ; Baker, in 

Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 295. 

Roraima : upper slopes, McConnell 8f Quelch, 57. 

British Guiana : Kaieteur Savannah and Essequibo River ; also in the West Indies, 
Central America, Venezuela. Ecuador, Brazil, Sandwich Islands, Ceylon, South India, 
Mascarene Islands, Tropical Africa, and the Atlantic Islands. 

67. Acrostichum decoratum, Kunze, in Linnsea, ix. (1 834), p. 25 ; Baker, in Trans. 
Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 294. 

Roraima range, 3500 ft,, McConnell 8f Quelch, 602. 
West Indies, Peru, and South Brazil. 

68. Acrostichum peltatum, Sw. El. Ind. Occ. iii. p. 1593 ; Appun, Unter den Tropen, 
ii. p. 595 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 295. 

Roraima : upper slopes, McConnell ty Quelch, 61 ; Mazaruni, between 250 and 3000 ft., 
McConnell 8f Quelch, 582. 

West Indies, Central America, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, and Brazil. 


(59. Ackostichum oijcAKciiTcuM, Baker, iii Hook, ot Baker, Syn. Fil. ed. 1, p. 41s. 
Roraima range, 3500 II.. McCotmell 8f Quelch, 600. 
North Peru. 

70. Sciiiz.ioA eluminensis, Miers, in Mart. Fl. Bras. i. pars n. p. 184, t. 15. fig. 2. 
Mazanini, between 250 and :}000 fl., McCotmell §r Quelch, 580. 

British Guiana : Kukenaam, and woods at the side of the Kaietcur Savannah; also in 
Venezuela and Brazil. 

71. Sciiiz^ea elegans, Sw. Syn. Fil. ]>. 151; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. 

ii. (1887), p. 295. 

Mazaruni, between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 589. 

British Guiana: Essequibo River; Epiro Creek, Corentyne River; Demerara River, 
and on the coast; also in the West Indies, Central America, Surinam, Venezuela, New 
Granada, and Brazil. 

72. Schiz.ea penntjla, Sw. Syn. Fil. pp. 150, 379. Actlnostachys penmtla, Hook. ; 

R. Schorab. Reisen in Brit. -Guiana, iii. p. 1045. 
Mazaruni, between 250 and 3000 ft., McConnell Sr Quelch, 588. 

British Guiana : Roraima ; Kukuya Creek ; Kaieteur Savannah ; Serra Mey and 
Demerara River; also in the West Indies, Surinam, Brazil, and New Caledonia. 

73. Anemia tomentosa, Sw. Syn. Fil. p. 157 ; Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. 

Bot. ii. (1887), p. 295. 
Kanuku Mountains, 1000 ft., McCotmell 8f Quelch, 272, 274. 

Var. FUliVA, Hook, et Baker, Syn. Fil. ed. 1, p. 133. 

Ireng Valley, McCotmell 8f Quelch, 201. 

British Guiana : Roraima and Rupununi ; also in the West Indies, Central America, 
Venezuela, New Granada, Peru, Paraguay, Brazil, and Uruguay. 

74. LYCOPODIUM alopecuroidks, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2, p. 15(55; Baker, in Trans. Linn. 

Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 295 ; Jenman, in Timehri, v. (1886), p. 44. 
Roraima: upper slopes, McConnell 8f Quelch, 60. 
Southern United States, Venezuela, New Granada, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, and Uruguay. 

75. Lycopodium ceknuum, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2, p. 15(56: Jenman, in Timehri, v. (1886) 

p. 15. 
Ireng Valley, McConnell 8f Quelch, 206. 

British Guiana: Corentyne, Pomeroon and Macouria Rivers and at Berbice; also 
throughout the tropics and extending a short distance on either side. 

76. Lycopodium contiguum, Klotzsch, in Linnaea, xviii. (1844), p. 519. 
Summit of Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 572. 

Higher parts of the Andes in Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, and Bolivia. 


77- Lycopomum clavatum, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2, p. 1564; Jenman, in Timehri, v. (1886), 
p. 44. 

Rorairua range, 3500 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch. 707. 

Arctic and alpine zones of both hemispheres, also on the mountains throughout the 

78. Lycopodium carolinianum, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 2, p. 1567 ; Jenman, in Timehri, v. 

(1886), p. 43. 

Roraima : upper slopes, Mc Council Sf Quelch, 52. 

British Guiana : Kaieteur Savannah ; Corentyne River ; Kako Creek ; Demerara ; 
also in Florida, Guadeloupe, Brazil, Paraguay, Hongkong, Ceylon, Mascarene Islands, 
and South Africa. 

79. Selaginella vernicosa. Baker, in Trans. Linn. Soc. Ser. II. Bot. ii. (1887), p. 295, 
t. 56. f. A. 

Summit of Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 574, ex parte. 
Also found by im Thurn at the hase of the cliff. 

Var. oligoclada, Baker, I. c. fig. B. 

Summit of Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 574, ex parte. 

80. Selaginella flabellata, Spring, Monogr. Lycopod. p. 174. 
Essequibo River, McConnell Sf Quelch, 115. 

British Guiana : foot of the Kaieteur. Tropics and subtropics of America, Asia, and 

81. Selaginella anceps, A. Br. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. in. (1865), p. 278. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 706. 

British Guiana : Potaro River ; also in Guatemala, Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, 
and Peru. 

MUSCI by V. P. Brotherus, Ph.l). 

DlCRANL'M LONGISETUM, Hook. MuSC. Exot. t. 13!). 

Mount Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 343. 

Eound in the mountains of Venezuela, New Granada, and Quito. 

Var. laxifolium, Broth, n. var. Eolia laxius disposita, apice argutius serrulata. 
Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McComiell A Quelch, 344. 


DlCKANODONTIUM lM'l^CIl KO-A l-A KIO, Brotb., 11. sp. Dioicu in , ea'Spitosilll), cmspitibus 
dcnsiusculis lutescentibus nitidis; caulis 8 cm., sterilis usque ad 12 cm. altus, 
arcuato-flexuosus, fusco-tonicntosus, densiuscule i'oliosus, sajpe innovationibus 
elongatis gracilibus. Folia falcata, canaliculato-concava, e basi lanceolata longe 
subulata, usque ad 1 cm. longa, superne dense et argute serrulata, nervo basi folii 
latitudinis tertiam partem vel paulum ultra occupante et superne dorso serrulato 
ibidemque folium totum occupante ; ccllulso superiores angusta? ; basilares ad 
uervum laxse, rectangulares, hyalinse ; exteriores angustissimae, limbum multi- 
seriatum efformantes; alares in ventrem magnum fugacem disposhaa, la\;r, 
tenerac, fuscae. Bractece perichcetii interna; e basi vagiuante sUbito in subulam 
integram attenuatse, cellulis omnibus elongatis angustis tcneris. Seta 25 cm. 
alta, tenuis, serpentino-nexuosula, lutea, apicc cygnea, rubra. Theca sicca erecta, 
plicata, bumida ob setam apice cygneam borizontalis, tevis, oblonga, c. 2"5 mm. alta, 
leptodermis, t'uscidula. Poistomium simplex ; exostomii dentes 10, aurantiaci, 
c. 037 mm. longi et c. 0'075 mm. lati, usque ad basin in cruribus duobus nMifonni- 
bus inaequalibus articulatis dense papillosis divisi ; spori 0*017 mm., f usci, papillosi. 
Cat em ignota. 

Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft,, McCunnell Sf Quelch, 345, 346. 


Campylopus chionophilus, Mitt, in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xii. (1869), p. 81. 
Dicranwm chionophilum, C. Muell. Syn. i. 398. 
Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McCormell $f Quelch, 342. 
Pound in tbe mountains of New Granada. 

Campylopus Roraim/E, Brotb., n. sp. Dioicus, caespitosus, caespitibus densis nigrescentibus 
superne lutescentibus etiamque nitidiusculis ; caulis Bid 3 cm. usque altus, tomentosus, 
dense et per totam longitudinem aequaliter foliosus, ramosus. Folia, bomomallula, 
erecto-patenlia, canaliculato-concava, e basi oblongo-lanceolata, breviter subulata. 
c. 5 mm. longa et c. 075 mm. lata, marginibus summo apice serratis, nervo basi 
dimidiam partem folii latitudinis occupante, lamina usque ad apicem folii distincta ; 
cellulae basilares subrectangulares, inter se poroses, marginem versus angustiores, 
dein rbomboideie ; superiores rbonibeae, incrassatae ; alares numerosae, subquadratae, 
rubra.', basin totam occupantes. Ccetera ignota. 

Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft, McCormell Sf Quelch, 347. 


Species C. concolori, Brid. affinis, sed foliis multo brevioribus primo visu digno- 

Campylopus atratus, Brotb., n. sp. Dioicus, robustus, ater, apicc lutescens, uiti- 
diusculus. Caulis 10 cm. altus, erectus, baud tomentosus, dense et per totam 
longitudinem aequaliter foliosus, parce ramosus ; folia sicca suberecta, bumida 
recurvulo-patentia, canaliculato-concava, superne tubulosa, e basi lanceolata longe 
et anguste subulata, pilo stricto tenui byalino longiusculo serrato termiuata, 



c. 10 mm. longa etc. l'l mm. lata, marginibus integris superne conniventibus, nervo 
basi tertiam partem f'olii latitudinis occupaute, lamina usque ad apicem I'olii distincta ; 
cellulse elongatae, angustse, marginem versus incrassatse, lumine angustissimo, 
limbiun inferne latiusculum hyalinuni superne teuuiorem, ultra medium evanidum 
efformantes, alares numerosae, subquadratae, rubrae, in ventrem distinctum dispositae. 
Ccetera ignota. 

Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell §r Quelch, 527. 


Species cum Campylopode griseo, Hornscb., comparanda, sed statura multo robustiore, 
foliis strictipilis, integris, tubulosis, limbatis facillime dignoscenda. 


Leucobryum megalophyllum, Mitt, in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xii. (1*69), ]>. 112. 

Dicrauum megalophyllum, Raddi, Critt. Bras. p. 3. Leucobryum giganteum, C. Muell. 

Syn. i. p. 79, ii. p. 530. Leucobryum robustum, Sull. in Proc. Amer. Acad. (1861), 

p. 279. 
Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 351 (forma). 
Eound in Cuba, Jamaica, Trinidad, Barbados, New Granada, Venezuela, and Brazil. 

Leucobryum crispum, C. Muell. Syn. i. p. 78. 

Roraima range at 3500 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 546. 

Found in tbe West-Indian Islands, Venezuela, Now Granada, and Brazil. 

Leucobryum ljevifolium, Brotb. Dioicum, robustiusculum, caespitosum, ciespitibus 
mollibus dilabentibus lutescenti-albidis oetate fuscescentibus nitidis ; caulis usque 
ad 6 cm. altus, erectus, dense foliosus, plcrumque fasciculatim ramosus, ramis 
fastigiatis. Folia sicca et hutnida suberecta, stricta vel rarius bomomallula, 
canaliculato-concava, e basi oblongo-lanceolata sensim acuminata, acuta, 5-6 mm. 
longa et c. 006 mm. lata, dorso sicca et bumida lsevissima, marginibus superne 
involutaceis integerrimis, limbata, limbo byalino, inferne e seriebus cellularum 
7-8 formato, superne angustiore, apice ol)soleto. lamina e stratis cellularum ;equalium 
duobus composita. Ccetera ignota. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft,, McConnell 8f Quelch, 505, 530. 
Species L. Martiauo, Hampe, afnnis, sed statura robustiore, nitore foliisque strictis, 

raro indistincte bomomallulis oculo nudo jam dignoscenda. 

Octoblepharum MixTENii, Jaeg. Adumbr. i. p. 169. Octoblepharum longifolium, Mitt, 
in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xii. (1869), p. 110. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 517. 
Found in Brazil. 

Leptodontium cirrhifolium, Mitt, in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xii. (1869), p. 52. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 511. 
Found in the mountains of Quito. 



Macromitrium mtjcronifolitjm, Schwaegr. Suppl. ii. II. i. |>. 167, I. 172. 
Roraima range, 8500 ft.. McConnell A- Quelch, 544. 
Found in Florida, in the West- Indian islands, Guiana, Surinam, and Brazil. 

Zygodon SUBDENTICUIATUS, llampe, Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. iv. (1863 (57), p. 320. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 510. 
Found in New Granada. 

FuNAuiA calvescens, Schwaegr. Suppl. i. II. p. 77, t. 65. 

Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell §r Quelch, 33S. 

Found in South Europe and in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, 
America, and Australia. 


Beeutelia scoparia, Besch. in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. VI. iii. (1870), p. 209. Bartramia 
scoparia, Schwaegr. Suppl. iii. I. 1. t. 211. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, 8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 514. 
Found in the West-Indian Islands. 


Rhizogomim Lindigii, Mitt, in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xii. (I860), p. 328. Milium 
IAndigii, Hampe, in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. V. iv. (1863-67), p. 345. 
Summit of Mount Boraima, 8600 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 502, 537. 
Found in Costa Rica and in the mountains of New Granada. 

Mnium rostratum, Schrad. in Linn. Syst. Nat. 13 ed. Gmel. ii. pars 11. p. 1330. 
Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell A> Quelch, 339. 
Found in all parts of the world. 


Rhacocaupls Humboldtii, Lindb. in Ofvers. Svensk. Vet.-Ak. Fork. (1862). Har- 
risonia Humboldtii, Spreng. Syst. Veg. iv. 1. p. 145. 

Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell $• Quelch, 336, and summit of 
Mount Roraima, 519, 534 (var. fusco-viridis). 

Found in the mountains of New Granada. 

PlLOTiuCHi ji bipinnatum, Brid. Bryol. Univ. ii. p. 283. 

Roraima range, 3500 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 548. 

Found in the West-Indian Islands, in Guiana, Brazil, and in the mountains of Quito 
and Peru. 




Hookeria (§ Hylotapis) pilotrichelloides, Broth., u. sp. Robust iuscula, mollis, i'usco- 
aurea, nitida; caulis usque ad 15 cm. lougus, tiexuosus, complanatulus, dense 
foliosus, per totam longitudineni pinnatim ramosus, ramis vix ultra 1 cm. longis 
patentibus strictis vel arcuatulis eomplanatulis dense foliosis obtusis. Folia 
sicca inibricata, humida subei'ecta, eynibiformi-concava, oblonga vel ovato-oblonga, 
in apiculum acutum, recurvulum subito contracta, marginibus inferne revolutis, 
integerrimis vel apice minutissime crenulatis, nervis binis elongatis vix divergen- 
tibus longe infra apicem evanidis dorso kevibus ; cellular angustissime lineares, 
seriatim papillose ; basilares laeves ; infinue laxre, breves, fusco-aurea?. Cwtera 

Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McCownell 8f Quelch, 337. 


Species pulcberrima, mollitie necnon caule longissimo PilotrlchelUs nonnullis similis, 
cum nulla alia comrnutanda. 

Hookeria (§ Omaliadelphus) Roeaim^:, Brotb., n. sp. Dioica, robusta, lutescenti- 
viridis, setate fusco-aurea, nitida ; caulis usque ad 20 cm. longus, complanatulus, 
dense foliosus, dense pinnatim ramosus, ramis patulis, 1-1'5 cm. longis, strictis, 
eomplanatulis, dense foliosis, obtusis ; folia sicca laxe inibricata, valde undulata, 
humida erecto-patentia, concaviuscula ; lateralia oblongo-lanccolata, breviter acurni- 
uata, acutiuscula, marginibus inferne revolutis dein erectis minute serrulatis, 
nervis binis tenuibus parce divergentibus infra apicem evanidis dorso superne 
denticulatis ; cellulse elongatse, angustissime lineares ; basilares mfiniae laxae, 
fusco-aurea3, omnes hevissimae; bractece perichcetii internee e basi ovata sensim 
subulatse, minute deuticulatae, enerves ; seta 1*5 cm. vel paulum ultra alta, sat 
tenuis, rubra, lrevissima ; theca horizontalis, e collo brevi ovalis, sicca deojierculata 
sub ore baud constricta, fusca ; peristomvum duplex ; exostomii dentes e basi lanceo- 
lata longissime subulati, e. 095 mm. longi et c. 014 mm. lati, latiuscule exarati, 
dense et alto lamellati, aurantiaci • endostomium, sordide luteum, minute papillosum ; 
processus carinati, vix perforati ; operculum longe et anguste subulatum ; calyptra 
ad medium thecal producta, basi multifida, apice fusca, glabra. 

Roraima range, 3500 ft., JlcConnell Sf Quelch, 490, 550. 


Species pulcherrinia, statura robusta ab omnibus speciebus sectionis oculo nudo jam 


Ectropothecium amabile, Mitt, in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xii. (1869), p. 514. 

Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7800-8000 ft., McComiell 8f Quelch, 341, and summit of Mount 
Roraima, 8600 ft., 516, 512. 

Eound in the mountains of New Granada. 


Ctenidium malacodes, Mitt, in Journ. Linn. Soo. Hot. xii. (1869), p. 509. 
Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 340. 
Found in the mountains of New Granada and Quito. 


TuuiniUM A NULL ARUM, Bcsch. in Ann. Sc. Nat, St r. VI. iii. (1876), p. 244. 
Roraima range, 3500 ft., McGonnell Sf Quelch, 5t9. 
Found in Costa Rica and the West- Indian Islands. 

Thuidium pseudo-protensum, Mitt, in Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. xii. (1869), p. 578. 
Hypnum pseudo-protensum, C. Muell. in Bot. Zeit. vi. (181S), col. 779. 
Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 348. 
Found in Vene/aiela. 


Sphagnum sanguinale, Warnst. in Bot. Centralbl. lxxvi. (1898), p. 385. 

Mount Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 350, 541 in part. 

Sphagnum medium, Limpr. in Bot. Centralbl. vii. (1881), p. 313. 

Mount Iloraima, Ledge, 7500-8500 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 319, 511 in part. 
Found in Europe and in America from Labrador to Patagonia. 

HEPATIC^E. By F. Stephani. 

The collection of Liverworts made by Messrs. McConnell and Quelch is a small one, 
but is of particular interest from a geographical point of view. Many plants were 
found which hitherto had been only observed in the Andes of South America; their 
unexpected appearance on the top of Mount Iloraima is quite startling : the curious 
Frullania mirabilis, Jack et Steph., is of particular interest, as well as the very rare 
and beautiful Pleurozia paradoxa, Jack, both of which up to this time had not been 
elsewhere collected. 

It is possible that some of these plants may have intermediate stations of which we 
are at present ignorant ; but a similar surprising collection was made by Mr. Ule (of 
the Botanic Garden of Bio Janeiro) in the Serra do Mar and the Serra Itatiaia, where 
Andine forms were collected, though stations forming connecting-links are altogether 

There are also several new species, amongst which Metzgeria inflala is one of the 
most curious in the genus, being quite hairless and almost without any rootlets, lying 
like a small inflated cylindric pouch amongst other mosses. 

As cryptogamic plants, and in particular Liverworts, with few exceptions, have very 
small spores and live in sheltered and moist places from where the wind cannot easily 


carry away the spores, they are a better indication than plnenogamic plants as to the 
Flora we must regard as the remnant of another, which, like that of South America, 
once covered a wide area, and is now separated by intermediate barren plains or tree- 
less Llanos and Pampas of enormous extension where no Liverworts can live. 

That the spores are not able to propagate a Liverwort beyond, perhaps, a small area, 
no better example can show than the very interesting flora of Killamey, where — doubtless 
for many centuries — a few species of Hepaticre of tropical origin have been preserved 
without being able to reach the Continent. 

The present condition of the literature of Liverworts seldom allows one to make 
geographical speculations ; but when my " Species Hepaticarum " is finished, and the 
number and relation of known liverworts, as also their distribution, settled, we may 
be able to draw conclusions which, I think, will be of value to all who study the 
geographical distribution of plants. 

The following Liverworts have been collected, viz. : — 

A. Anackogyxi, 

1. Dumortiera hirsuta, Nees, Hep. Eur. iv. p. 163. Marchcmtia hirsuta, Sw. Prodr. 

El. Ind. Occ. p. 145. 
Boraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell A'- Quelch, 334/0. 
Common in Tropical and Subtropical America, England, Italy, Africa. 

2. Aneura Schwaneckei, Steph. in Hedwigia xxvii. (1888), p. 278. 
Summit of Boraima, McConnell A'- Quelch, 512. 

Eound also in the West-Indian Islands. 

3. Aneura algoides, Steph. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. vii. (1809), p. 682. Metzgeria algoides, 

Taylor, in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. v. (1810), p. 410. 
Summit of Roraima, McConnell A - (Quelch, 529. 
An Andine plant, collected by Jameson near Quito. 

4. Aneura roraimensis, Steph., n. sp. Dioica, minor, pallide olivacea, aliis hepaticis 

consociata. From ad 5 mm. longa, exalata, irregulariter bipirmata, ssepe subfasci- 
culata. Trnueus primarius angustus, biconvexus, ramis trunco latioribus minus 
convexis. Cuticula ubique lamellata, lamellis denticulatis margine bene prominulis. 
Cellules frondis interna' corticalibus multo majores, fronde in adspectu itaque 
optime reticidata. Rami feminei in trunco solitarii, breves, margine latissime 
alati, alis profunde inciso-lobatis, lobis lanceolatis vel ligulatis obtusis, squama 
basali similiter lobata ramulum $ a tergo tegente. Reliqua desunt. 
A very good and most distinct species, easily to be recognized by the rough cuticula of 
the cortical cells. 

In the monograph of the genus Aneura (• Species Hepticarum,' p. 736) it is to be placed 
after No. 81, Aneura scabra, Steph. 

Summit of Boraima, McConnell §f Quelch, 350. Mixed with Micro [iteryg 'turn 
pterygophyllum, Spruce. 


5. Aneura Breutelii, Steph. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. vii. (1899), p. 759. 
Summit of Boraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, •")•">.'!. 

Collected before by Breutel in the West-Indian Island of st.Kitts. 

6. Aneura ftjcoides, Steph. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. vii. (1899), p. 680. Jungermwinia 

fwsoides, Sw. Prodr. fl. Ind. occ. p. 45. 
lloraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 334/6 in part. 
Common in Tropical America. 

7. Metzgeria inflata, Steph., n. sp. Dioica, spectabilis, lu-cvis, flaccida, pallide 

lurida, optime nitida, muscis consociata. From furcata, ad :> cm. longa, omnino 
nuda, basi tantum paucis radicellis aflixa. Costa tenuis, cellulis corticalibus utroque 
latere biseriatis tecta et in sectione transversa late oralis; cellulae antice et postice 
magnue, aequales, internae multo minores triseriatse. Alee apice cucullatse, ubique 
maxime irregulariterque revolutae, in sectione transversa valde asymmetrical, 
uno latere quadruplo latiores, re vera itaque sinuatim lobatae, lobis bulloso 
inflatis ob flexuram tarn en baud discretis. Cellules alarum 36-54 p, parietibus 
validis, trigonis parvis. Rem! feminei parvi, fere conduplicati, margine breviter 
Summit of lloraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 524. 

This plant is well adapted to retain the water winch it takes up from the mosses on 
which it is growing in rather exposed places on the very summit of the mountain ; it 
may be compared to the Tasmanian species M. saccata, Mitt., which prefers to grow on 
the uppermost twigs of trees, where it has a similar exposed situation and shows a similar 
adaptation to retain the water within the inflated lobes of the thallus. 

8. Metzgeria uajiata, Lindb. Monogr. Metzg. p. 25. 

Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, :534/4 and 5. 
Common in all parts of the globe. 

9. Monoclea G-OTTSCHEi, Lindb. in Rev. Bryol. xiii. (1886), p. 102, in adnot. 
Roraima, at 3500 ft., McConnell Sr Quelch, 551. 

West-Indian Islands and tbe northern part of South America, Chile, Peru. 
This plant has been distributed by Gottsche and others under the name of Monoclea 
Forsteri, a very different plant and altogether antarctic (New Zealand and Patagonia). 

10. Paliavicintus Wallisii, J. B. Jack & Steph. in Hedwigia, xxxi. (1892), p. 23. 
Summit of Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 501. 

Collected before hy Wallis in the mountains of New Granada near Antioquia, 
8000 ft. 


B. Aceogtnj;. 

11. Jamesoniella colorata, Spruce, in Journ. Bot. xvi. (1876), p. 30. Jungermannia 
colorata, Lcbm. in Linnsea, iv. (1829), p. 366. 

Summit of Boraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 539 in part. 
America, Australia, South Africa. Very common. 

12. Syztgiella Quelchii, Steph., n. sp. Sterilis magna, fusco-purpurascens, tenera et 
flaccida, aliis hepaticis sparsim consociata. Caulis ad 8 cm. longus simplex 
(semper?). Folia opposita, conferta, assurgentia, si a lam decurrentem anticatn 
excipis oblique falcato-ovata, apice duplo augustiora quam basi, oblique truncata 
vel lenissime emarginata, omnino integerrima, angulis solum dentiformibus ; 
margine postico valde arcuato, basi folii oppositi brevissime coalito ibidemque 
hamatim anriculato, margine antico substricto breviter recurvo, longe decurrente, 
folia tamen anticc baud attenuata sed oblique truncata et abrupte desinentia, folio 
opposito minime coalita. Cellulce foliorum nodulose incrassatse, nodulis maximis 
nusquam confluentibus, multo majores quam in S. manca, Steph. 

Boraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft,, McConnell 8f Quelch, 334/11 in part, 
A most beautiful and very curious plaut ; the two opposite leaves are quite erect and 
touch each other, the stem being perfectly hidden when seen from above. At the 
postical base these two leaves are united for a very short space; just above this point 
they are rounded off and much projecting, and have a large incurved acuminate 

13. Syzygiella pereoliata, Spruce, in Trans. Edinb. Bot. Soc. xv.(1885), p. 500, inadnot. 
Jungennannia perfoliata, Sw. Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. p. 143. 

Summit of Boraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 521 in part. 
Found in Venezuela and the West Indies. 

14. Plagiochila aerea, Taylor, in Hook. Lond. Joum. Bot. v. (1840), p. 263. 
Boraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 334. 

Found before in Venezuela and Mexico. 

15. Plagiochila gavana, Steph,, n. sp. Dioica, spectabilis, pallide glauco-virens, setate 
flavo-virens, effuse caespitans. Caulis ad 10 cm. longus, longe remoteque, pauci- 
ramosus, ramis late divergentibus, apice ssepe fasciculacis ubique sequaliter foliatis. 
Folia magna, tenera, remotiuscula, basi tantum imbricata, subrectc patula, breviter 
inserta, i. e. basi antica et postica fere opposita, breviter decurreutia, ceterum ovato- 
oblonga, apice fere triplo angustiora quam basi, margine antico substricta recur va 
subintegerrima, margine j)ostico arcuata versus basin ampliata, rotundata ibidemque 
cum folio opjjosito ad cristam erectam conniventia, longe spinosa, spinis sub 30 
magnis approxiiuatis angustis longe acuminatis recte patulis 7 cellulas longis basi 
2-4 cellulas latis. Folii cellulce 34x50^, trigonis majusculis ; basales 34x80^, 
parietibus sequaliter inciassatis. Perianthia in eaulc termiualia, geminatim 
innovata, foliis parum longiora, plus duplo angustiora quaiu longa, antice late alata, 


apice recte truncata ut in ala longe spinosa, spinis ut in folio sed magis confertis. 

Folia floralia caulinis simillima. Andrcecia in caule tcrininalia, longe spicata, 

spicis ad 2 vel 3 subfasciculatis erectis; bracteae ad 1<> ju^ie, e hasi longe saccata 

parum recurvo-patulae, apice truncate et paucidenticulatae. 
Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 334/!) in part. 
In JPlagiochila superba, Wahlenb., the leaf-cells are much larger, the spines very stout, 
very much longer and less numerous. Lindenberg says (Monogr. Flag. p. 80) that Sieber 
had given him this species as coming from Australia ; but this is a mistake of Sieber, 
who had not marked his packets and did not know on his return whence he had 
procured the plants ; many errors of the same kind have been previously pointed 
out by me. 

16. Plagiochila remotifolia, Hampe & Gottsche in Linnsea, xxv. (1852), p. 310. 
Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell §r Quelch, 334/3. 
Pretty common in the West Indian Islands. 

17- Plagiochila rutilans, Lindenb. Spec. Hep. ii. & iii. (Monogr. Hep. Gen. Plag.) 
p. 47. 
Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 331/2 in part. 
Common in Tropical America. 

18. Leioscyphus eragilis, J. E. Jack & Steph. in Hedwigia, xxxi. (1892), p. 20. 
Summit of Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 524 in part. 

Also in New Granada. 

19. Lophocolea Breutelii, Gottsche, in Syn. Hep. p. 154. 
Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell §r Quelch, 334/14 in part. 
Common in the West Indian Islands. 

20. Mastigobryum roraimense, Steph., n. sp. Dioica, mediocris, apice dilute flavo- 

virens, inferne brunneola, erecta, laxe intricata. Caulis ad 4 cm. longus, repetito 
furcatus, postice flagellis numerosis capillaceis instructus. Folia conferta, valde 
decurva, in piano subrecte pa tula, oblonga, parum falcata, antice parum ampliata, 
caulemque baud superantia, apice triplo angustiora quam basi, acute bideutula sinu 
lunato parum profundo vel truncata, angulis acutis. Cellules foliorum magna?, 
apice 27 //, trigonis maximis contiguis vel late confluentibus, medio infero multo 
majores, 37-56 p, incrassatio parietum grosse trabeculata. Amphigastria caulina 
caule triplo fere latiora, imbricata, transverse inserta, late obcuneata, tertio supero 
inciso biloba, lobis similiter sed brevius bilobis; cellute amphigastria; caulinis 
simillima?, parum minores. Folia floralia quadrijuga, intima caulinis sequilonga, 
profundissime bifida, laciniis late lanceolatis, marginibus cxternis crenatis vel 
crenato-dentatis, internis subintegerrimis. Amphigastrium florale foliis suis aequale. 
Perianthiwm (juvenile) ore longe fimbriatum, ciliis triangulariter articulatis hie 
illic ramosis. Reliqua desunt. 
Summit of Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 523. 



21. Mastigobrytjm dissodontum, Steph. n. nornen; Bazzcmia bidens var. dissodonta. 

Spruce, in Trans. Edinb. Bot. Soc. xv. (1885), p. 371. 
Summit of Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 532. 
Found in Colombia. 

22. Mastigobrytjm portoricense, Hampe & Gottsche in Linnsea, xxv. (1852), p. 348. 
Roraima at 3500 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, 545. 

Common in tbe West Indian Islands and northern South America. 

23. Mastigobrytjm vincextinum, Lehm. & Lindenb. Syn. Hep. p. 226. 
Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell Sf Quelch, :J34/10, 15, & 16. 
Common in the West Indian Islands. 

24. Mastigobrytjm Krugiaxum, Steph. in Hedwigia, xwii. (1888), p. 300. 
Roraima, Ledge, 7000-8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 334/14 in part. 
Found before in the island of Santo Domingo. 

25. Mastigobrytjm gracile, Hampe & Gottsche, in Linnaea, xxv. (1852), p. 346. 
Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 334/11 in part. 
Known from different places in the West Indian Islands. 

26. Micropterygium GRANDiSTiPULUM, Steph., n. sp. SteHlis, minor, dilute brunuea 
vel flavo-rufescens, muscicola, valde intricatim c.-espitans. Caulis tenuis, ad 2 cm. 
longus, irregulariter ramosus. Folia conferta. dccurvula, semiamplexicaulia, ex 
angusta basi ovato-oblonga, longe acuminata, apice abrupte attenuata ibidemque 
paucidenticulata vel integerrima. Folii lobulus posticus integerrimus, brevi spatio 
(ad j-) carinatim coalitus, folium subinde oblique percurrens, attenuatus, longe sub 
folii apice desinens. Cellules foliorum lseves, 8x12 p, basales 8x17 /*, sub- 
rectangulatae, maxime aequaliterque incrassatse. AnvpMgastria magna, imbricata, 
foliis parurn breviora, transvei'se inserta, plana, integerrima, medio infero fere 
eircularia, superne abrupte angustata, lanceolata, acuta. 

Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 334/14 in part. 

There is not a species of this genus which does not have some of its leaves merely 
conduplicate, the wing being entirely wanting; where the latter is developed it is part 
of the antical lobe, which can easily be observed if a transverse cut of the leaf is made ; 
the same occurs sometimes in Scapania, and is best developed in Schlstochila. 

27. Micropterygium pterygophylltjm, Spruce, in Trans. Edinb. Bot. Soc. xv. (1885), 

p. 384. Jungermannia pterygophylla, Nees, in Mart. Fl. Bras. vol. i. pars prior, 

Algse, Lichenes, Hepaticse, p. 377. 
Summit of Roraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 530 in part. 
Common in Tropical America. 

28. Lepidozia commtjtata, Steph. in Hedwigia, xxvii. (1888), p. 293. 
Summit of Roraima, McConnell Sf Quelch, 521. 

Very common in the West Indian Islands. 


29. Lepidozia laxkpinnata. Spruce, in Trans. Edinb. Bot. Soc. xv. (1885), p. 360. 
Roraima at 3500 ft., McConnell §r Quelch, 552. 

An A inline species not found anywhere else before. 

30. Schisma junipekinum. Xees, lie]). Eur. iii. p. 575. Jimgermatmia juniperina, Sw. 
Veg. Ind. Occ. iii. p. 1855. 

Summit of Borairua, McConnell A - Quelch, 522. 528, 5.">K. r ) : , ,<) ; in (he hist associated 
to Jo mesoniella colorata, Spruce. 
Very common in Tropical America. 

31. Schisma pensilis, Steph., n. nomen. Sendtnera pensilis, Taylor, in Hook. Lond. 
Journ. Bot, v. (18 ±6), p. 372. 

Boraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft.. McConnell fy Quelch, 334 2 in part. 
A pretty rare Andine species. 

32. Schisma Duranjdii, 8teph., n. sp. Sterilis longissima, gracilis, lurida, lon°-e 
lateque stratificata et dense caespitosa. Caulis ad 20 cm. longus, fragilis, simplex, 
superne ssepe fasciculatim raruosus, apice breviter circinatus, postice flao-ellifer, 
flagellis brevibus approximatis parvifoliis. Folia pro planta parva, triplo longiora 
quarn lata, ad f bifida, laciniis lanceolatis apice longe setaceis valde bamatis 
valdeque divergentibus. Cuticulo grosse verrucosa. Cellules foliorum subapicales 
17 X 25 n, parietibus longioribus et marginalibus trabeculatim incrassatis. Cellube 
basales 25 X 70 fx, oblongo-hexagonoe, trigonis magnis saepe trabeculatim contiuen- 
tibus. Flagellorum folia multoties minora, ovato-oblonga, laxe accumbentia. 
porrecta, ad § bifida, laciniis late lanceolatis vix setaceis. 

Boraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McConnell 8f Quelch, 334/2, 334/11 & 334/14, all 
in part. 

This plant has been found before by Pittier in the higher mountains of Costa Bica. 

33. Schisma subdentatum. Steph., n. sp. Sterilis, mediocris, fusco-purpurascens. 
optime nitens, densissime depresso-caespitosa. Caulis ad 6 cm. longus, simplex vel 
furcatus, furcis divergentibus. Folia confertissima, maxime decurvo-hamata. 
angusta, plus 3-plo longiora quam lata, ad | bifida, laciniis parum divergentibus, 
longe acuminatis, acutis. Cellullm foliorum subapicales 17x25 p, parietibus 
longioribus valde incrassatis ; incrassatio marginalis, praecipue ad augulos cellularwn, 
grosse nodulose- vel mbdentatim prominula. Cel/uhe basales folii longe hexa"ona\ 
25x08 /i, parietibus longioribus maxime trabeculatim incrassatis. 

Boraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft.. McConnell 8f Quelch, 3341. 

34. Trichocolea sphagnoides, Steph., n. nomen. Leiomitra sphagnoides, Spruce, in 
Trans. Edinb. Bot. Soc. xv. (1885), p. 350. 

Boraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 It.. MeCormell 8f Quelch, 334 in part, 11 in part. 
and 13. 

Andes of Quito. 

o 2 


35. Scapania portoricensis, Ilampe & Gottsche, in Linnsea, xxv. (1852), p. 342. 
Summit of Roraima, McGonnell 8f Quelch, 573. 

Not rare in the West Indian Islands, and found by Spruce also on the top of Mount 
Abitagua, 2000 m. (his Scapania splendkla). 

36. Pleurozia paraloxa, Steph., n. nomen. — Physiotivmi paradoxiim, J. B. Jack, in 

Hedwigia, xxvii. (1880), p. 85. 
Summit of Roraima, McGonnell 8f Quelch, 543. 
Known before from Pasto, collected by P. C. Lehmann. 

37. Harpalejeunea tenax, Steph., n. sp. Sterilis, minor, fusco-olivacea, rigida, 

dense caespitosa. Caulis ad 15 mm. longus, capillaceus, parum ramosus. Folia 
remotiuscula, caule vix latiora, parum patula, cauli fere parallela, valde concava, in 
piano cordiformia, tertio supero abrupte angustata acuminata acuta vix incurva, 
lobulo duplo angustiore, valde inflato, in acumen folii attenuate Cellules foliorum 
parvse, ad 12 p, trigonis late confluentibus. Amphigastria parva, transverse inserta, 
caulem vix superantia subrotunda, appressa, integerrima. 
Roraima, Ledge, 7500-8000 ft., McCoimell 8f Quelch, 334/. 

A much reduced form, rigid and evidently well adapted to a dry climate, the leaves 
being very small, little projecting from the stem, the cell-walls very thick. This plant 
is almost unique in the great number of species of Lejeunea, which always live in damp 
and well sheltered places, and disappear where a dry atmosphere can reach them. 

38. Prullania mirabilrs, J. B. Jack & Steph. in lledwigia, xxxi. (1892), p. 15. 
Summit of Mount Roraima, 3IcConnell Sf Quelch, 510. 

Collected before by Wallis in New Granada, near Antioquia. 

39. Prullania atrata, Nees, in Syn. Hep. p. 163. Jititgermcmnia at rata, Sw. Prodi*. 

Fl. Ind. Occ. p. 144. 
Summit of Roraima, JlcC'oi/uell 8f Quelch, 535. 
Very common in Tropical America. 

40. Prullania longicollis, Lindenb. & Gottsche, in Syn. Hep. p. 783. 
Summit of Roraima, JlcCoiniell 8f Quelch, 335. 

An Andine species, found also in Mexico. 



FUNGI. By (J. Massee, F.L.S. 

Piioma Psammisle, Massee, n. sp. Maculae nullae; perithecia epidermide tecta, gregaria, 
500 jot diam., atra, ostiolo papillato pertusa ; sporse ellipticae, 2-guttulatae, 10-11 x 3 n. 

Spots absent ; perithecia gregarious, covered by the grey raised epidermis, Lenticular, 
averaging 500 p in diameter, black, glabrous ; ostiohun minute, papillate; texture paren- 
chymatous, dense, olive; spores hyaline, elliptical, ends obtuse with two minute polar 
guttulae, 10-11 X 3 /j.. 

On dead branch of Psammisia coriacea, N. E. Brown. Summit of Boraima, McCownell 
Sf Quel clt. 

Allied to P. slid tea, Berk, et Broome. 

Echinobotryum roseum, Massee, n. sp. Mycelium tenuissimum vix manifestum, 
allium; hyphoe fertiles erectae, septate, hyalinae, 1 p. crassae. Conidia in apicibus 
hypharum fertilium densius aggregata, sessilia, fusoidea, 10-17 X 6 /i, roseo-tincta. 

Sterile hyphse prostrate, hyaline, septate, branched, about 4 p thick, loosely interwoven 
into a very thin white layer ; fertile hyphas erect, septate, simple, hyaline, 4 p thick, 
apex minutely nodulose and producing numbers of sessile spindle-shaped, pale rose- 
coloured conidia measuring 15-17x6 u. 

Parasitic on Octomeria parvifolia, Ilolfe. Summit of Boraima, McCownell Sf Quelch, 

Allied to E. here, Sacc, from which the present differs in the form and colour of the 

Stemthylitjm ericoctonum, A. Br. & de Bary, Krankh. d. Pflanz. (1851), p. IS, tab. 2. 

On living branches of Leitgebie Tmthwrnia/na, Oliver. Summit of Boraima, McCownell 
Sf Quelch. 


Macrosporitjm ramulosum, Sacc. Fung. Ital. tab. 851 (1881). 

On fading leaves of Tqfieldia Schombvrgkiana, Oliver. Summit of Boraima, MoConnell 
Sf Quelch. 

Europe, and in the Andes of Colombia. 

Capnoditjm fibrosum, Berk, in Hook. Fl. Nov. Zel. ii. (1855), p. 209. 

Forming a black bristly pile on living 1 twigs of Psammisia. Summit of Boraima, 
McConnell Sf Quelch, 662. 

N. Zealand. 

ltlllPIDONEMA membranaceum, Sacc. Syll. vi. (1888), p. 688. 
On bark. Boraima, 8000 ft., McCownell Sf Quelch, 508, 526. 
Amazon Valley ; Marianne Islands. 


LICHENES. By G. Massee, F.L.S. 

Sph^erophoron compressor Ach. Metb. Licli. (1803), p. 135. 
On stones. Summit oi' Eoraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 506. 
Capo Horn; Chili; W.Indies; Europe; India; Ceylon. 

Cladonia rangiferina, Hoffm. Elor. Germ. (1795), p. 111. 

On the ground. Summit of Eoraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 507 & 520. 

Parmelia dictyorhiza, Massee, n. sp. Thallus membranaceo-cartilagineus, substellatus, 
repetito dichotomo-laciniatus, cretaceus, subtus niger, spongiosus. Apothecia 

Thallus thin, cartilaginous, radiating from a centre in an irregularly stellate manner, 
repeatedly dichotomously divided, chalk-white above, black and spongy below, the 
spongy stratum composed entirely of closely septate brown hypha? 11-12 p. thick, 
arranged in the form of an irregular network. Apothecia unknown. Lacinise about 
2 mm. wide. 

On the ground. Summit of Eoraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 53. 

Allied to P. hypotropa, Nyl., but separated from this and every other described species 
in the reticulate structure of the spongy lower surface of the thallus. 

Parmelia perforata, Ach. Eich. Univers. (1810), p. 110. 

On branches. Summit of Eoraima, McConnell fy Quelch, 503 & 513. 
Central and N. America ; Central Africa ; Polynesia. 

Alectoria ochroleuca, Nyl. Prod. Lich. (1857), p. 40. 

On branches. Summit of Eoraima, McConnell 8f Quelch, 50f. 
Mexico ; United States ; Europe ; Himalaya ; Japan ; Australia. 



Plate l. 

Ilex apicidens. (Figs. 1 to 6.) 

Figs. 1 & 2. Branches with las and dense inflorescences, natural size. 
Fig. 3. Flower, x I. 

4. Flower with petals and stamens removed, x 4. 

5. Stamen, dorsal view, x 4. 
(5. Stamen, front view, x 4. 

CyriUa brevifolia. (Figs. 7 to 16.) 
Figs. 7 & 8. Two branches, natural size. 
Fig. 9. Fragment of a raceme with one flower, x 5. 

10. Sepal, seen from within, x 7. 

11. Petal, seen from within, X 7. 

12. Stamens, front and side views, x 7. 

13. Flower, with the outer parts removed to show the ovary, x 7. 

14. A trifid stigma, x 7. 

15. Ovary, longitudinal section, x 12. 

16. Ovaries, transverse sections, x 12. The ridges on the ovaries may be due to shrinkage, but 

they are represented as seen after long boiling. 

Plate 2. 

Macairea aspera. 
Fig. 1. Branch, natural size. 

2. Fragment of leaf, upper surface, x 4. 

3. Flower, with the petals and six stamens removed, x 5. 

4. Petal, X 5. 

5. Transverse section through the calyx-tube and ovary, x 5. 

Figs. 6 S: 7. Long and short stamens from another specimen (no. 24, McConnell \ Queich), X 5. 

Plate 3. 

Passiflora Quelchii. 
Fig. 1. Branch, natural size. 

2. Inflorescence, natural size. 

3. Longitudinal section of a flower, x 2. 

4. Filament of the lower corona, X 5. 


Plate 4. 

Henriquezia Jenmani. 

Fig. 1. Leaf and inflorescence, natural size. 

2. Flower, with the corolla removed, natural size. 

3. Corolla, laid open, natural size. 

4. Ovary after the sepals have fallen, x 3. 

5. Ovary, longitudinal section, x 3. 

6. Ovary, transverse section, x 3. 

Plate 5. 

Didymochlamys Connelln. (Figs. 1 to 9.) 

Fig. 1. Part of a plant seen from above, natural size. 

2. Part of a plant seen from beneath, natural size. 

3. Inflorescence, with one bract removed, X 2. 

4. Flower with 2 sepals and the corolla removed, x 5. 

5. Corolla, laid open, x 2. 

6. A lobe of the corolla, x 4. 

7. Ovary, with glands and calyx-lobes, longitudinal section, x 5. 

8. Ovary, longitudinal section, showing placentas, X 5. 

9. Ovary, transverse section, x 5. 

Chalepojjhijlhnn Connellii. (Figs. 10 to 17.) 
Figs. 10 & 11. Two branciilets showing the range of variation in different specimens, natural size, 

but tbe stems are not stout enough. 
Fig. 12. Calyx and ovary, natural size. 

13. Part of a corolla laid open, natural size. 

14. Stamens, dorsal and front views, x 2. 

15. Ovary, longitudinal section, x 4. 

16. Ovary, transverse section, x I. 

17. Ovule, x 12. 

Plate 6. 

Retiniphyllum laxiflorum. 
Fig. 1. Branch, natural size. 

2. Flower, x 2. 

3. Apex of a pedicel, x o. 

4. Longitudinal section through the lower part of a flower, x 5. 

5. Three views of a stamen, X 5. 

6. Ovary, transverse section, x 5. 

7. Longitudinal section of an ovarian cell, x 20. 

8. Transverse section of an ovarian cell, x 20. 

9. Oblique dorsal view of the cap-shaped placenta and ovules, x 20. 

10. Oblique front view of the placenta and one ovule, the other ovule removed, X 20. 

11. Fruit, x about %\. 

12. Fruit, transverse section, X 3. 

mount kokaima in british guiana. 105 

Plate 7. 

lleterothulamus densus. (Figs. 1 to 7.) 

F"ig. 1. Branch of a male plant, natural size. 

2. Branch of a female plant, natural size. 

3. Involucre of a male head of flowers, X ">. 

4. Involucre of a female head of flowers, x 5. 

5. Male floret, X 5. 

6. Bract from the receptacle of a female head, x ">. 

7. Female floret, X 5. 

Quelchia conferta. (Figs. 8 to 1 V.) 

Figs. 8 & 9. Two branches, showing variation in the length of the peduncles, natural size. 
Fig. 10. A flower-head, x 4. 

11. A flower-head, longitudinal section, x 4. 

12. Corolla laid open, with four stamens removed, x 1. 

13. Anthers, dorsal view, with three filaments cut off, x 4. 

14. Fruit, x 2. 

Plate 8. 

Stiftia Connellii. 
Fig. 1. Branch, natural size. 

2. Bract from the receptacle, x 2. 

3. Floret, with part of the pappus removed, x 2. 

4. Stamens, X 2. 

5. Apex of style, x 2. 

Plate 9. 

Bonyunia minor. ( Figs. 1 to 5.) 

Fig. 1. Branch, with flowers and fruit, natural size. 

2. Branchlet of an inflorescence, x 4. 

3. Part of a corolla laid open, x 4. 

4. Longitudinal section of a flower, with the corolla removed, x 4. 

5. Transverse section of an ovary, x 12. 

Lisianthus Quelchii. (Figs. G to 9.) 

Figs. 6&7. Portions of different plants, natural size. 

Fig. 8. Flower with two sepals and the corolla removed, natural size after boiling. 
9. Corolla laid open, natural size. 

Plate 10. 

Utricularia Connellii. (Figs. 1 to 6.) 

Fig. 1. Three entire plants, natural size. 

2. Part of inflorescence, showing bract and bracteoles, x 5. 

3. Flower, x 2. 

4. Calyx, dorsal view, x 5. 

5. Stamens, x 5. 

6. Pistil, x 10. 



Utricularia concinna. (Figs. 7 to 11.) 

Fig. 7. Three entire plants, natural size. 

8. Inflorescence, x 3. 

9. Flower, viewed from above, with the dorsal sepal turned hack, x 3. 

10. Stamens, x 10. 

11. Pistil, x 10. 

Utricularia Quelchii. (Figs. 12 to 16.) 

Fig:- 12. Two entire plants, natural size. 

13. Bract, bractcolcs, and calyx, natural size. 

14. Corolla, natural size. 

15. Stamens, x 5. 

16. Pistil, x 5. 

Plate 11. 

Utricularia rorai mends. (Figs. 1 to 4.) 

Fig. 1 . Group of plants, natural size. 

2. Part of a raceme, with the corolla removed, X 5. 

3. Corolla, x 5. 

4. Stamen, x 10. 

Genlisea roraimensis. (Figs. 5 to 12.) 

Fig. 5. Plant, natural size. 

6. Fragment of the base of a stem, with leaf (+ + ), false roots, and an imperfect utricle standing 

erect among the leaves, X 10. 

7. Perfect utricle, X 5. 

8. Imperfect utricle, transition form between the ordinary false root and the perfect utricle, x 5. 

This form has a very minute pore at the apex. 

9. Imperfect utricle, erect form, x 5. 

10. Part of a raceme, with the corolla removed, X 5. 

11. Corolla, X 5. 

12. Stamen, x ">. 

Plate 12. 

Brocchinia reducta. 

Fig. 1. B.osette of leaves, natural size. 

2. Inflorescence, natural size. 

3. Flower, with a sepal and two petals removed, x 5. 
1. Sepal, x 5. 

5. Petal, x 5. 

6. Style and stigmas, X 5. 

7. Transverse section of unripe capsule, seeds not shown, X 5. 

8. Seed, X 5. 

mount kokaima in british guiana. 107 

Plate 13. 

Connellia Augusta. 

Fig. I . Leaf, natural size. 

SJ. Inflorescence in flower, natural size. 

3. Inflorescence in fruit, natural size. 

4. Sepal, natural size. 
Petal, natural size. 

6. Ovary, the other parts of the flower being removed, natural size. 

7. Ovule, x 30. 

8. Ripe fruit and bracteole, natural size. 

9. Seeds, x 10. 

Figs. 1, '■'>, 8, & !) are Prom McConnell & Quelch's specimen, the rest arc from 

Srliomburgk's specimen. 

Plate 14. 

CotrtwUia Que/chii. 

Figs. 1 K 2. Plants natural, size. 

Fig. 3. A large tuft of leaves, natural size. 

I. A leaf, tomentose on the hack, natural size. 

5. Sepal, x 2. 

6. Petal, X 2. 

7. Ovary, x 2. 

8. Young fruit, x 2. 

9. Transverse section of an ovary, x ">. 

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Second Series. — Botant. 



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